Do High Levels of Physical Activity in Acute Anorexia Nervosa Associate with Worse Clinical Outcomes at Admission?

Research Paper Title

High levels of physical activity in female adolescents with anorexia nervosa: medical and psychopathological correlates.

Background

While overexercise is commonly described in patients who experience anorexia nervosa (AN), it represents a condition still underestimated, especially in the paediatric population.

Methods

The present study aims at assessing the possible associations between levels of physical activity (PA) and clinical features, endocrinological data and psychopathological traits in a sample of 244 female adolescents hospitalised for AN subdivided into two groups according to PA levels (high PA vs. no/low PA). The two groups were compared through multivariate analyses, while multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine whether physical activity predict specific outcomes.

Results

No significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of last Body Mass Index (BMI) before illness, BMI at admission and disease duration, while a difference emerged in delta BMI(rapidity of weight loss), significantly higher in high-PA group (p = 0.021). Significant differences were observed in Free triiodothyronine- (p < 0.001), Free thyroxine (p = 0.046), Follicle-stimulating hormone (p = 0.019), Luteinising hormone (p = 0.002) levels, with values remarkably lower in high-PA group. Concerning psychopathological scales, the high-PA group showed worst Children’s Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores (p = 0.035). Regression analyses revealed that higher PA predicts higher delta BMI (p = 0.021), presence of amenorrhea (p = 0.003), lower heart rate (p = 0.012), lower thyroid (Free triiodothyronine p < 0.001, Free thyroxine p = 0.029) and gynaecological hormones’ levels (Follicle-stimulating hormone p = 0.023, Luteinising hormone p = 0.003, 17-Beta estradiol p = 0.041). Concerning psychiatric measures, HPA predicts worst scores at CGAS (p = 0.019), and at scales for evaluation of alexithymia (p = 0.028) and depression (p = 0.004).

Conclusions

Results suggest that high levels of physical activity in acute AN associate with worst clinical conditions at admission, especially in terms of endocrinological and medical features.

Reference

Riva, A., Falbo, M., Passoni, P., Polizzi, S., Cattoni, A. & Nacinovich, R. (2021) High levels of physical activity in female adolescents with anorexia nervosa: medical and psychopathological correlates. Eating and Weight Disorders. doi: 10.1007/s40519-021-01126-3. Online ahead of print.

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