New Insights on Suicide Care from a Nursing Perspective

Research Paper Title

Suicide care from the nursing perspective: A meta-synthesis of qualitative studies.

Background

To explore nurses’ experiences of suicide care and to identify and synthesize the most suitable interventions for the care of people with suicidal behaviour from a nursing perspective. A qualitative meta-synthesis.

Methods

Comprehensive search of five electronic databases for qualitative studies published between January 2015 and June 2019.

The PRISMA statement was used for reporting the different phases of the literature search and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) qualitative research checklist was used as an appraisal framework. Data synthesis was conducted using Sandelowski and Barroso’s method.

Results

Seventeen articles met the inclusion criteria. The data analysis revealed 13 subcategories from which four main categories emerged: ‘Understanding suicidal behaviour as a consequence of suffering’, ‘Nurses’ personal distress in suicide care’, ‘The presence of the nurse as the axis of suicide care’ and, ‘Improving nurses’ relational competences for a better therapeutic environment’.

Conclusions

Further training of nurses on the therapeutic relationship, particularly in non-mental health care work settings, and monitoring of the emotional impact on nurses in relation to suicide is required to promote more effective prevention and care.

Impact

This review provides new insights on how suicide is interpreted, the associated emotions, the way suicide is approached and proposals for improving clinical practice from the point of view of nurses. The results demonstrate that the nurse-patient relationship, ongoing assessment, and the promotion of a sense of security and hope are critical in nursing care for patients who exhibit suicidal behaviour. Consequently, to promote an effective nursing care of suicide, nurses should be provided with further training on the therapeutic relationship. Thus, health institutions do not only provide the time and space to conduct an adequate therapeutic relationship, but also, through their managers, they should supervise and address the emotional impact that is generated in nurses caring for patients who exhibit suicidal behaviour.

Reference

Clua-Garcia, R., Casanova-Garrigos, G. & Moreno-Poyato, A.R. (2021) Suicide care from the nursing perspective: A meta-synthesis of qualitative studies. Journal of Advanced Nursing. doi: 10.1111/jan.14789. Online ahead of print.

Interoceptive Impairment & Non-Suicidal Self-Injury

Research Paper Title

A multi-measure examination of interoception in people with recent nonsuicidal self-injury.

Background

Self-injurious behaviors (SIB) are highly dangerous, yet prediction remains weak. Novel SIB correlates must be identified, such as impaired interoception. This study examined whether two forms of interoceptive processing (accuracy and sensibility) for multiple sensations (general, cardiac, and pain) differed between people with and without recent nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI).

Methods

Participants were adults with recent (n = 48) NSSI and with no history of SIBs (n = 55). Interoceptive sensibility was assessed with self-reports. Interoceptive accuracy for cardiac sensations was assessed using the heartbeat tracking task. Interoceptive accuracy for pain was assessed with a novel metric that mirrored the heartbeat tracking test.

Results

Participants with recent NSSI reported significantly lower interoceptive sensibility for general sensations relative to people without SIBs. Groups did not differ on interoceptive sensibility for cardiac sensations or pain. Groups also did not differ on interoceptive accuracy for cardiac sensations. The NSSI group exhibited significantly lower interoceptive accuracy for pain compared with the No SIB group.

Conclusions

Interoceptive impairment in people with NSSI may vary by interoceptive domain and sensation type. Diminished interoceptive accuracy for sensations relevant to the pathophysiology of self-injury may be a novel SIB correlate.

Reference

Forrest, L.N. & Smith, A.R. (2021) A multi-measure examination of interoception in people with recent nonsuicidal self-injury. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behaviour. doi: 10.1111/sltb.12732. Online ahead of print.

What are the Correlates of Suicidal Ideation & Behaviours Among Former Military Personnel Not Enrolled in the Veterans Health Administration?

Research Paper Title

Correlates of Suicidal Ideation and Behaviours Among Former Military Personnel Not Enrolled in the Veterans Health Administration.

Background

The current study sought to explore suicidal concomitants, both demographic and psychological, among former military personal.

Methods

The sample included 645 veterans who are at increased risk for suicide but have not yet pursued Veterans Health Administration (VHA) services.

Results

Descriptive statistics revealed that these veterans are primarily young Caucasian males who served in the US Army.

In terms of psychological characteristics, the current sample reported clinically significant levels of depression, post-traumatic stress, and insomnia.

Furthermore, respondents acknowledged use of various substances and high levels of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness.

Conclusions

The demographic and psychological makeup of the researchers sample was somewhat similar to that of VHA-connected veterans except that their sample was slightly more educated and reported less physical pain.

Reference

Raines, A.M., Allan, N.P., Franklin, C.L., Huet, A. Constans, J.I. & Stecker, T. (2020) Correlates of Suicidal Ideation and Behaviors Among Former Military Personnel Not Enrolled in the Veterans Health Administration. Archives of Suicide Research. 24(4), pp.517-533. doi: 10.1080/13811118.2019.1660286. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Book: Reasons to Stay Alive

Book Title:

Reasons to Stay Alive.

Author(s): Matt Haig.

Year: 2015.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Canongate Books Ltd.

Type(s): Hardcover, Paperback, Audiobook, and Kindle.

Synopsis:

Aged 24, Matt Haig’s world caved in. He could see no way to go on living. This is the true story of how he came through crisis, triumphed over an illness that almost destroyed him and learned to live again.

A moving, funny and joyous exploration of how to live better, love better and feel more alive, Reasons to Stay Alive is more than a memoir. It is a book about making the most of your time on earth.

“I wrote this book because the oldest clichés remain the truest. Time heals. The bottom of the valley never provides the clearest view. The tunnel does have light at the end of it, even if we haven’t been able to see it . . . Words, just sometimes, really can set you free.”

Book: Suicide Prevention Handbook

Book Title:

Suicide Prevention Handbook: A Mental Health Guide For Saving Lives.

Author(s): Ben Oakley.

Year: 2020.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Independently Published.

Type(s): Paperback and Kindle.

Synopsis:

The book includes our detailed four-step guide for suicide prevention:

  • Warning Signs include social signs, personal signs and planning signs.
  • Risk Factors include isolation and social inequality, violence or abuse, self-harm and mental health disorders.
  • Intervention includes social intervention, personal intervention including exactly what to say to start a mental health conversation and how to seek help.
  • Coping Strategies include distraction, grounding and relaxation.

With real-world examples and concrete ways of how to help yourself or another.

Many mental health advocates and organisations recommend you talk about mental health but they don’t tell you how to get the conversation started. This book provides you with Conversation Starters, Direct Questions, Indirect Questions, Example Lists, Guidance and ways to move a conversation from negative emotions to positive ones.

Along with the extensive four-step suicide prevention handbook, there is a guide to writing your own suicide prevention life plan with tips on creating priorities, goals, action plans and how to write it.

You’ll also find a list of UK mental health organisations, what not to say, myths debunked and a series of essays about the misconception of man.

Supreme Movement is a mental health awareness social enterprise in the United Kingdom whose mission is to raise awareness of mental health issues, specifically suicide and self-harm among males.

Ben Oakley is an established non-fiction author, researcher, mental health advocate and founder of Supreme Movement.

Book: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Depression

Book Title:

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression: Retrain your Brain from Wrong Behaviors, Irrational Beliefs and Negative Ways of Thinking. Open Yourself to Life, Happiness and the Freedom of Change.

Author(s): John Rich.

Year: 2019.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Independently Published.

Type(s): Hardcover and Kindle.

Synopsis:

Depression is said to affect more than 300 million people globally, from all age categories. This particular mental disorder is incredibly common, and yet incredibly challenging for people to face, overcome, and heal from. Depression is considered to be a serious and even life-threatening condition as it can progress into more advanced stages that lead to thoughts surrounding self-harm and suicidal ideation.

Learning how to face, navigate, overcome, and heal from depression is important in your ability to protect yourself from the painful symptoms that depression can present in your life. If you have been looking for natural, healthy ways to overcome depression, cognitive behavioural therapy may be exactly what you are looking for.

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is a form of psychotherapy that is used to intentionally rewire the way your brain works through the power of specific thought processes and skills that are instilled within the individual that is healing from depression. As you learn how to navigate depression with CBT skills in tow, you will begin to realise how capable you are of overcoming this painful, dreadful, and often traumatising mental disorder that you might be facing in your life right now.

For some people, CBT is the only therapy that they need to support them in healing from depression. For others, CBT works in conjunction with lifestyle changes and even antidepressants to support a holistic form of therapy that helps the patient heal from depression in the immediate present while also being able to overcome episodes in the future.

The book seeks to shine a light on the power of CBT and how this particular psychotherapy can support you in having a healthier life, free of the struggles of depression. The goal is for you to learn to overcome depression in a way that supports you with increasing your mental strength, mental stamina, and emotional intelligence, while also improving your natural emotional resistance.

Some of what you will learn in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Depression includes:

  • What CBT is and how it works.
  • Who founded CBT and how.
  • What depression is and the specific symptoms to look for.
  • How you can use self-awareness to overcome depression.
  • How CBT works to heal depression.
  • How CBT supports mental and emotional strength and resiliency.
  • The exact steps for executing CBT in your own life.
  • How to monitor your CBT to make sure it is actually working.
  • How to use CBT to instantly boost your mood.
  • How to use CBT to boost your mood in the long term.
  • Natural methods for overcoming and healing depression.
  • And more!.

If you are ready to relieve yourself from the grasp of depression and heal yourself and your life, grab your copy of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Depression today to get started!

Book: Critical Suicidology

Book Title:

Critical Suicidology: Transforming Suicide Research and Prevention for the 21st Century.

Author(s): Jennifer White, Ian Marsh, Michael J. Kral, and Jonathan Morris (Editors).

Year: 2015.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: UBC Press.

Type(s): Paperback and EPUB.

Synopsis:

This book is a must-read for practitioners, policy makers, and researchers working in mental health services, psychology, counselling, social work, psychiatry, medicine, philosophy, sociology, suicidology, feminism, anthropology, critical disability studies, and cultural studies.

Do Older Adults with Parent(s) Alive Experience Higher Psychological Pain and Suicidal Ideation?

Research Paper Title

Do Older Adults with Parent(s) Alive Experience Higher Psychological Pain and Suicidal Ideation? A Cross-Sectional Study in China.

Background

Elderly mental health promotion is an important task in the current “Healthy China Action”.

This study aims to:

  1. Clarify the psychological pain and suicidal ideation of the Chinese elderly with different parental states;
  2. Examine the associated factors of psychological pain and suicidal ideation; and
  3. Examine the relationship between psychological pain and suicidal ideation.

Methods

A sample of 4622 adults aged 60 years and older were included in this study, from the China’s Health-related Quality of Life Survey for Older Adults 2018.

Results

Participants with both parents alive demonstrated the heaviest psychological pain, and those with one parent alive observed significantly lowest psychological pain and suicidal ideation.

Participants who were single, divorced, or widowed, live in rural areas, had higher education level, had lower family income, suffered from two or more chronic diseases, and had no self-care ability were more likely to experience psychological pain and suicidal ideation.

In addition, higher psychological pain was significantly associated with the occurrence of suicidal ideation.

Conclusions

In China, much more attention should be paid to the mental health condition of the elderly, especially for those with both parents alive.

Moreover, the associated factors above should be considered to develop targeted health interventions.

Reference

Yang, Y., Wang, S., Hu, B., HAo, J., Hu, R., Zhou, Y. & Mao, Zongfu. (2020) Do Older Adults with Parent(s) Alive Experience Higher Psychological Pain and Suicidal Ideation? A Cross-Sectional Study in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 17(17), pp.E6399. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17176399.

World Suicide Prevention Day

Introduction

World Suicide Prevention Day (WSPD) is an awareness day observed on 10 September every year, in order to provide worldwide commitment and action to prevent suicides, with various activities around the world since 2003.

The International Association for Suicide Prevention (IASP) collaborates with the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the World Federation for Mental Health (WFMH) to host World Suicide Prevention Day.

In 2011 an estimated 40 countries held awareness events to mark the occasion. According to WHO’s Mental health Atlas released in 2014, no low-income country reported having a national suicide prevention strategy, while less than 10% of lower-middle income countries, and almost a third of upper-middle and high-income countries had.

On its first event in 2003, the 1999 WHO’s global suicide prevention initiative is mentioned with regards to the main strategy for its implementation, requiring:

  1. “The organisation of global, regional and national multi-sectoral activities to increase awareness about suicidal behaviours and how to effectively prevent them.”
  2. “The strengthening of countries’s capabilities to develop and evaluate national policies and plans for suicide prevention.”

As of recent WHO releases, challenges represented by social stigma, the taboo to openly discuss suicide, and low availability of data are still to date obstacles leading to poor data quality for both suicide and suicide attempts: “given the sensitivity of suicide – and the illegality of suicidal behaviour in some countries – it is likely that under-reporting and misclassification are greater problems for suicide than for most other causes of death.”

Background

An estimated one million people per year die by suicide or about one person in 10,000 (1.4% of all deaths), or “a death every 40 seconds or about 3,000 every day”. As of 2004 the number of people who die by suicide is expected to reach 1.5 million per year by 2020.

On average, three male suicides are reported for every female one, consistently across different age groups and in almost every country in the world. “Conversely, rates of suicide attempts tend to be 2-3 times higher in women than in men, although the gender gap has narrowed in recent years.” More people die from suicide than from murder and war; it is the 13th leading cause of death worldwide. According to the WHO there are twenty people who have a suicide attempt for every one that is fatal, at a rate approximately one every three seconds. Suicide is the “most common cause of death for people aged 15 – 24.”

According to the WHO, suicide accounts for nearly half of all violent deaths in the world. Brian Mishara, IASP president, noted that, “more people kill themselves than die in all wars, terrorist acts and interpersonal violence combined.” As of 2008, the WHO refers the widest number of suicides occur in the age group 15 – 29, while the lowest in the 80+ although representing as well the one with the highest rate (per 100,000) of all age groups, with 27.8 suicides and 60.1 for females and males respectively. In 2015 the reported global age-standardised rate is 10.7 per 100,000.

Social norms play a significant role in the development of suicidal behaviours. Late 19th century’s sociological studies recorded first ever observations on suicide: with statistics of the time at hand, sociologists mentioned the effects of industrialisation as in relations between new urbanised communities and vulnerability to self-destructive behaviour, suggesting social pressures have effects on suicide. Today, differences in suicidal behaviour among different countries can be significant.

Themes

  • 2003 – Suicide Can Be Prevented!.
  • 2004 – Saving Lives, Restoring Hope.
  • 2005 – Prevention of Suicide is Everybody’s Business.
  • 2006 – With Understanding New Hope.
  • 2007 – Suicide prevention across the Life Span.
  • 2008 – Think Globally, Plan Nationally, Act Locally.
  • 2009 – Suicide Prevention in Different Cultures.
  • 2010 – Families, Community Systems and Suicide.
  • 2011 – Preventing Suicide in Multicultural Societies.
  • 2012 – Suicide Prevention across the Globe: Strengthening Protective Factors and Instilling Hope.
  • 2013 – Stigma: A Major Barrier to Suicide Prevention.
  • 2014 – Light a candle near a Window.
  • 2015 – Preventing Suicide: Reaching Out and Saving Lives.
  • 2016 – Connect, Communicate, Care.
  • 2017 – Take a Minute, Change a Life.
  • 2018 – Working Together to Prevent Suicide.
  • 2019 – Working Together to Prevent Suicide.
  • 2020 – Working Together to Prevent Suicide.

Priorities

Suicide prevention’s priorities, as declared on the 2012 World Suicide Prevention Day event, are stated below:

  • We need to continue to research suicide and non-fatal suicidal behaviour, addressing both risk and protective factors.
  • We need to develop and implement awareness campaigns, with the aim of increasing awareness of suicidal behaviours in the community, incorporating evidence on both risk and protective factors.
  • We need to target our efforts not only to reduce risk factors but also to strengthen protective factor, especially in childhood and adolescence.
  • We need to train health care professionals to better understand evidence-based risk and protective factors associated with suicidal behaviour.
  • We need to combine primary, secondary and tertiary prevention.
  • We need to increase use of and adherence to treatments shown to be effective in treating diverse conditions; and to prioritise research into effectiveness of treatments aimed at reducing self-harm and suicide risk.
  • We need to increase the availability of mental health resources and to reduce barriers to accessing care.
  • We need to disseminate research evidence about suicide prevention to policy makers at international, national and local levels.
  • We need to reduce stigma and promote mental health literacy among the general population and health care professionals.
  • We need to reach people who do not seek help, and hence do not receive treatment when they are in need of it.
  • We need to ensure sustained funding for suicide research and prevention.
  • We need to influence governments to develop suicide prevention strategies for all countries and to support the implementation of those strategies that have been demonstrated to save lives.

Factors

Suicide has a number of complex and interrelated and underlying contributing factors … that can contribute to the feelings of pain and hopelessness. Having access to means to kill oneself – most typically firearms, medicines and poisons – is also a risk factor.

The main suicide triggers are:

  • Poverty;
  • Unemployment;
  • The loss of a loved one;
  • Arguments; and
  • Legal or work-related problems.

Suicide results from many complex sociocultural factors and is more likely to occur during periods of socioeconomic, family and individual crisis (e.g. loss of a loved one, unemployment, sexual orientation, difficulties with developing one’s identity, disassociation from one’s community or other social/belief group, and honour).

In richer countries, three times as many men die of suicide than women do, but in low- and middle-income countries the male-to-female ratio is much lower at 1.5 men to each woman.

In the United States, for example, males are four times more likely to die from suicide than are females. However, females are more likely to attempt suicide than are males.

The disparity in suicide rates has been partly explained by the use of more lethal means and the experience of more aggression and higher intent to die in men than women.

Physical and especially mental health disabling issues such as depression, are among the most common of the long list of complex and interrelated factors, ranging from financial problems to the experience of abuse, aggression, exploitation and mistreatment, that can contribute to the feelings of pain and hopelessness underling suicide. Usually substances and alcohol abuse also play a role.

Prevention strategies generally emphasise public awareness towards social stigma and suicidal behaviours.

Cultural and Religious Attitudes

In much of the world, suicide is stigmatised and condemned for religious or cultural reasons.

In some countries, suicidal behaviour is a criminal offence punishable by law. Suicide is therefore often a secretive act surrounded by taboo, and may be unrecognised, misclassified or deliberately hidden in official records of death.

Stigma, particularly surrounding mental disorders and suicide, means many people thinking of taking their own life or who have attempted suicide are not seeking help and are therefore not getting the help they need.

The prevention of suicide has not been adequately addressed due to a lack of awareness of suicide as a major public health problem and the taboo in many societies to openly discuss it.

Raising community awareness and breaking down the taboo is important for countries to make progress in preventing suicide.

Links

Suicide Screening and Prevention

Reseach Paper Title

Suicide Screening and Prevention.

Background

Suicide is a major public health problem not only in the United States (US) but in many western nations as well.

In the US, it is the 10th leading cause of death, accounting for nearly 44,000 deaths each year. Suicide is also the seventh leading cause of years of potential loss of life, surpassing liver disease, diabetes, and HIV.

Each year, nearly half a million individuals present to the emergency departments in the US following attempted suicide.

Data indicate that nearly 1 out of every 7 young adults admits to having some type of suicidal ideation at some point in their lives and at least 5% have made a suicide attempt.

Suicide has repercussions way beyond the affected individual. It costs the US healthcare system over $70 billion, and untold billions of dollars are lost by the families who are affected, in terms of loss of earning.

Suicides are at an all-time high and affect both genders. Men are nearly 3.5 times more likely than women to commit suicide, and on average 123 people kill themselves every day.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) has predicted that in the next 2 years, depression will be the leading cause of disability globally. Depression is not only a North American phenomenon but is now being diagnosed in almost every nation. The annual prevalence of major depressive disorders in North America is 4.5%, but this is a gross underestimate because many individuals do not seek medical help. Depression is a serious medical disorder and associated with a high risk of suicide. Data reveals that more than 90% of individuals with a major depressive disorder do see a healthcare provider within the first 12 months of the episode and at least 45% of suicide victims have had some contact with a primary health care provider within the 4 weeks of suicide.

This indicates that if their healthcare providers are more vigilant and alert, suicide could be prevented in these individuals. These grim statistics have led to a National Strategy for Suicide Prevention in the US.

Considering that many individuals who commit suicide have a mental health disorder and have visited their primary caregiver, the focus now is on health care providers to become aware of the factors that increase the risk of suicide and to refer these individuals to mental health professionals for some type of intervention.

The current United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations are that primary caregivers should screen adolescents and adults for depression only when there are appropriate systems in place to ensure adequate diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up.

Aetiology

Many factors have been identified in individuals who commit suicides or have attempted suicide. These factors include the following:

  • Advanced age.
  • Availability of a firearm.
  • Chronic illness.
  • A family history of suicides.
  • Financial difficulties.
  • Negative life experiences.
  • Loss of job.
  • Marital status divorced.
  • Medications.
  • Mental illnesses such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
  • Pain that is continuous.
  • A physical illness that has led to disability.
  • Race: white.
  • Gender: Male.
  • Social media.
  • Stress.
  • A sense of no purpose in life.

Other Risk Factors for Suicide

Over the years, several other factors have been identified that increases the risk of suicide and they include:

  • Major childhood adverse events, for example, sexual abuse.
  • Discriminated for being gay, lesbian, transgender or bisexual.
  • Having access to lethal means.
  • A long history of being bullied.
  • Chronic sleep problems.

In Males and Older Individuals

  • Loss of job or unemployment.
  • Low income.
  • Neurosis.
  • Social isolation.
  • Spousal loss, bereavement.
  • Affective disease.
  • Functional impairment.
  • Physical illness.

Military Personnel

  • Traumatic brain injury.
  • PTSD.
  • Other mental health issues.

The most important thing to understand is that having just one risk factor has very limited predictive value. Millions of Americans have one of these factors at any one point in time, but very few attempt suicide and even fewer die as a result. One has to look at the entire clinical picture to increase the predictive values of these risk factors.

Function

Which type of mental health disorder is associated with an increased risk of suicide?

Accumulated data reveal that many types of mental health disorders have been associated with an increased risk of suicide and they include the following:

  • Major depression.
  • Schizophrenia.
  • Substance abuse.
  • Alcoholism.
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder.
  • Bipolar disorder.
  • Personality disorders.
  • Emotional stress.
  • Medications and Suicides.

You can read further @ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK531453/.

Reference

O’Rourke, M.C., Jamil, R.T. & Siddiqui, W. (2020) Suicide Screening and Prevention. Treasure Islan, Florida: StatPearls Publishing.