Do Lipid Alterations Predate Antipsychotic Treatment in Adolescents with Early-Onset Pyschosis?

Research Paper Title

Lipid alterations in adolescents with early-onset psychosis may be independent of antipsychotic medication.

Background

Dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) are cardiovascular risk factors prevalent in patients with psychosis.

Whether these factors are intrinsic or affected by lifestyle or antipsychotic medication (AP) is unclear.

Therefore, the researchers investigated lipid profiles, HOMA-IR, and psychotic phenotypes in patients aged 12-18 years with early-onset psychosis (EOP) with and without AP exposure.

Methods

The researchers measured fasting total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), triglycerides (TG), insulin, and glucose in patients with EOP (n = 39) and healthy controls (HC) (n = 66).

Diet information was not available. Negative symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).

They used univariate analysis of variance to compare TC/HDL-C ratios and TG and HOMA-IR values, controlling for body mass index (BMI) and AP exposure.

They also assessed the explained variance of having EOP using multiple regression analysis.

Results

Patients with and without AP exposure had significantly higher TC/HDL-C (p = 0.003, p = 0.029) and TG values (p < 0.001, p = 0.021) than HC.

Significantly increased HOMA-IR scores were found only in AP-exposed patients (p = 0.037). EOP significantly increased the explained variance for TC/HDL-C and TG, but not for HOMA-IR.

Patients with a PANSS negative score > 21 had significantly higher levels of TG than those with low scores (p = 0.032).

Conclusions

The results suggest that lipid alterations predate AP treatment in adolescents with EOP.

Higher levels of negative symptoms and AP further increase metabolic risk.

The preliminary findings propose that subclinical dyslipidemia may be intrinsic to EOP.

Reference

Wedervang-Resell, K., Friis, S., Lonning, V., Smelror, R.E., Johannessen, C., Agartz, I., Ulven, S.M., Holven, K.B., Andreassen, O.A. & Myhre, A.M. (2019) Lipid alterations in adolescents with early-onset psychosis may be independent of antipsychotic medication. Schizophrenia Research. pii: S0920-9964(19)30546-8. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2019.11.039. [Epub ahead of print].

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