What is the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale?

Introduction

The Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS) is a 22 item self-report questionnaire that assesses the presence of three eating disorders; anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder.

Outline

It was adapted by Stice et al. in 2000 from the validated structured psychiatric interview: The Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) and the eating disorder module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID)16.

A study was made to complete the EDDS research; the process to create and finalise the questionnaire. A group of people eating-disorders researchers take a looked at a preliminary version of the questionnaire and made a final decision of which questions to put on the final questionnaire with the 22 questions.

  • The questionnaire starts off with questions about the patient’s feelings towards his/her physical appearance, specifically the weight.
  • Then, it proceeds to questions about having episodes of eating with a loss of control and how he/she felt after overeating.
  • The questions afterwards are about the patient’s experience on fasting, making themselves vomit and using laxatives to prevent weight gain.
  • It will then ask you how much body image problems impact your relationship and friendship with others.
  • Lastly, the questionnaire asks for the patient’s current weight, height, sex and age.

The EDDS questionnaire is used for researchers to provide some cures for the three types of eating disorder. It is more efficient than having an interview because it’s easier to get a result, from a group of participants, with the 22-questions questionnaire. Having to interview each participant is a harder and more time-consuming way to get a result. This questionnaire is also useful for primary care/ clinical purposes to identify patients with eating pathology.

In follow up studies of the reliability and validity of the EDDS, it was shown to be sufficiently sensitive to detect the effects of eating disorders prevention programs, response to such programs and the future onset of eating disorder pathology and depression. The EDDS shows both full and subthreshold diagnoses for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. EDDS is a continuous eating disorder symptom composite score. The PhenX Toolkit uses the EDDS for as an Eating Disorders Screener protocol.

Refer to:

What is the Body Attitudes Questionnaire?

Introduction

The Ben-Tovim Walker Body Attitudes Questionnaire (BAQ) is a 44 item self-report questionnaire divided into six subscales that measures a woman’s attitude towards their own body.

The BAQ is used in the assessment of eating disorders. It was devised by D.I. Ben-Tovim and M.K. Walker in 1991.

Refer to the Body Attitudes Test.

Sub-Scales

The six subscales measured by the BAQ are:

  • Overall fatness.
  • Self disparagement.
  • Strength.
  • Salience of weight.
  • Feelings of attractiveness.
  • Consciousness of lower body fat.
  • Foreign-language versions.

Portuguese Version

The BAQ was the first body attitudes scale to be translated into Portuguese. The validity of the Portuguese language version was proven in a test conducted on a cohort of Brazilian women who speak Portuguese as their native language. The test-retest reliability was 0.57 and 0.85 after a one-month interval. The test was conducted by Scagliusi et al.

Japanese Version

The BAQ was translated into Japanese and tested on 68 males and 139 females in Japan and 68 Japanese males living in Australia (Kagawa et al.) The scores were assessed against 72 Australian men using the English-language version as well as scores from previous female Australian participants. There was a significant difference between the Japanese and Australian groups (p,0.05). The BAQ was deemed adequate for use in both Japanese males and females.

References

Ben-Tovim, D.I. & Walker, M.K. (1991) The development of the Ben-Tovim Walker Body Attitudes Questionnaire (BAQ), a new measure of women’s attitudes towards their own bodies. Psychological Medicine. 21(3), pp.775-784. doi:10.1017/S0033291700022406.

Kagawa, M., Uchida, H., Uenishi, K., Binns, C.W. & Hills, A.P. (2007) Applicability of the Ben-Tovim Walker Body Attitudes Questionnaire (BAQ) and the Attention to Body Shape scale (ABS) in Japanese males and females (PDF). Eating Behaviors. 8(3), pp.2772-284. doi:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2006.11.002.

Scagliusi, F.B., Polacow, V.O., Cordas, T.A., Coelho, D., Alvarenga, M., Philippi, S.T. & Lancha Jr, A.H. (2005) Psychometric testing and applications of the Body Attitudes Questionnaire translated into Portuguese. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 101(1), pp.25-41. doi:10.2466/PMS.101.5.25-41.

What is the Body Attitudes Test?

Introduction

The Body Attitudes Test (BAT) was developed by Probst and colleagues in 1995.

Refer to Body Attitudes Questionnaire.

Background

It was designed for the assessment of eating disorders in women. The BAT measures an individual’s subjective body experience and attitudes towards one’s own body it differentiates between clinical and non-clinical subjects and between anorexics and bulimics. It is composed of twenty items which yield four factors:

  1. Negative appreciation of body size.
  2. Lack of familiarity with one’s own body.
  3. General body dissatisfaction.
  4. A rest factor.

Reference

Probst, M. Van Coppenolle, H. & Vandereycken, W. (1997) Further experience with the Body Attitude Test. Eating and Weight Disorders. 2(2), pp.100104. doi:10.1007/bf03339956.