The Substance: Albert Hoffman’s LSD (2011)


The Substance: Albert Hofmann’s LSD is a 2011 documentary film directed by Martin Witz.

The film documents the coincidental discovery of the drug LSD by the Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann in 1943.


In 1943, the year in which the first A-bomb was built, Albert Hofmann discovered LSD, a substance that was to become an A-bomb of the mind. Fractions of a milligram are enough to turn our framework of time and space upside down. The story of a drug – its discovery in the Basel chemistry lab, the first experiments by Albert Hofmann on himself, the 1950s experiments of the psychiatrists, the consciousness researchers, the artists. Could it actually be possible to find a path to the core of our human existence by means of a chemical? Spirituality at the flick of a switch? Do the enigmatic effects of this drug really help us to better understand the human soul? Could LSD be an instrument of contemporary psychiatry? Of modern brain research?

Production & Filming Details

  • Narrator(s): Trevor J. Roling (English), Hanspeter Muller (German), and Mario Scarabelli (Italian).
  • Director(s): Martin Witz.
  • Producer(s):
    • Elda Guidinetti … producer.
    • Peter Luisi … co-producer.
    • Andres Pfäffli … producer.
    • Carl-Ludwig Rettinger … co-producer.
  • Writer(s): Martin Witz.
  • Music: Marcel Vaid.
  • Cinematography: Pio Corradi and Patrick Lindenmaier.
  • Editor(s): Stefan Kalin.
  • Production:
    • Ventura Film (presents).
    • RSI-Radiotelevisione Svizzera (in co-production with).
    • Teleclub AG (in co-production with) (as Teleclub).
    • Lichtblick Film- und Fernsehproduktion (I) (in co-production with) (as Lichtblick Filmproduktion).
    • Spotlight Media Production AG (in co-production with) (as Spotlight Media Productions).
  • Distributor(s):
    • Officine UBU (2012) (Italy) (all media).
    • Cinema Delicatessen (2012) (Netherlands) (theatrical).
    • I Wonder Pictures (2013) (Italy) (theatrical).
    • Mindjazz Pictures (2012) (Germany) (theatrical).
    • Film1 Sundance Channel (2015) (Netherlands) (TV) (limited).
    • Frenetic Films (2011) (Switzerland) (all media).
    • Icarus Films (2012) (USA) (all media).
    • Soda Pictures (2011) (UK) (DVD).
    • Yleisradio (YLE) (2012) (Finland) (TV).
  • Release Date: 07 August 2011 (Locarno Film Festival, Switzerland).
  • Running Time: 90 minutes.
  • Rating: 15.
  • Country: US.
  • Language: English.

Video Link

What are the Side Effects Associated with a Single Dose of Ketamine in Treatment-Resistant Depression?

Research Paper Title

Comprehensive assessment of side effects associated with a single dose of ketamine in treatment-resistant depression.


Concerns about ketamine for treating depression include abuse potential and the occurrence of psychotomimetic effects.

This study sought to comprehensively assess side effects (SEs) associated with a single subanesthetic-dose intravenous ketamine infusion.

A secondary aim was to examine the relationship between Clinician-Administered Dissociative States Scale (CADSS) scores and dissociative symptoms reported on a comprehensive, clinician-administered SE questionnaire.


Data from 188 participants were pooled from four placebo-controlled, crossover ketamine trials and one open-label study (n = 163 with either treatment-resistant major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder and 25 healthy controls).

SEs were actively solicited in a standardized fashion and monitored over the time-course of each study.

Statistical analyses assessed the effect of drug (ketamine, placebo) on SEs and measured the relationship between CADSS total score and SEs contemporaneously endorsed during structured interviews.


Forty-four of 120 SEs occurred in at least 5% of participants over all trials.

Thirty-three of these 44 SEs were significantly associated with active drug administration (versus placebo).

The most common SE was feeling strange/weird/loopy.

Most SEs peaked within an hour of ketamine administration and resolved completely by two hours post-infusion.

No serious drug-related adverse events or increased ketamine craving/abuse post-administration were observed.

A positive correlation was found between dissociative SEs and total CADSS score.

The post-hoc nature of the analysis; the limited generalisability of a single subanesthetic-dose ketamine infusion; and the lack of formal measures to assess ketamine’s cognitive, urological, or addictive potential.


No long-lasting significant SEs occurred over the approximately three-month follow-up period.


Acevedo-Diaz, E.E., Cavanaugh, G.W., Greenstein, D., Kraus, C., Kadriu, B., Zarate, C.A. & Park, L.T. (2019) Comprehensive assessment of side effects associated with a single dose of ketamine in treatment-resistant depression. Journal of Affective Disorders. pii: S0165-0327(19)31983-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2019.11.028. [Epub ahead of print].