What is the Paranoia Network?

Introduction

The Paranoia Network, founded in November 2003, is a self-help user-run organisation in Sheffield, England, for people who have paranoid or delusional beliefs.

Background

In contrast to mainstream psychiatry, that tends to see such beliefs as signs of psychopathology, the Paranoia Network promotes a philosophy of living with unusual and compelling beliefs, without necessarily pathologising them as signs of mental illness. It was partly inspired by the Hearing Voices Network’s approach to auditory hallucinations.

What would otherwise seem to be a relatively minor disagreement over theory is complicated by the fact that people diagnosed as delusional can often be detained under mental health law and treated without their consent. Therefore, many of the criticisms of the diagnosis or definition have important ethical and political implications, which often leads to heated public debate.

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What is the Hearing Voices Network?

Introduction

Hearing Voices Networks, closely related to the Hearing Voices Movement, are peer-focused national organisations for people who hear voices (commonly referred in western culture as auditory hallucinations) and supporting family members, activists and mental health practitioners. Members may or may not have a psychiatric diagnosis.

Networks promote an alternative approach, where voices are not necessarily seen as signs of mental illness. Networks regard hearing voices as a meaningful and understandable, although unusual, human variation. In themselves voices are not seen as the problem. Rather it is the relationship the person has with their voices that is regarded as the main issue.

Development

Twenty-nine national Hearing Voices Networks have been established worldwide. There are also regional networks in Australia (Western Australia, Victoria, Tasmania and southwest Australia), Quebec, UK (Greater London, southwest England) and the United States. The National and Regional Networks are affiliated to the international umbrella organisation known as INTERVOICE (The International Network for Training Education and Research into Hearing Voices) and often referred to as the Hearing Voices Movement. Within these international networks, the combined experience of voice-hearers and professionals have overseen the development of ways of working with people who hear voices that draw on the value of peer support and which help people to live peacefully and positively with their experiences.

Purpose

The principal roles of Hearing Voices Networks are as follows:

  • To support and develop local Hearing Voices Support Groups.
  • Raise awareness of the hearing voices approach.
  • To campaign for human rights and social justice for people who hear voices.
  • To provide information, advice and support to people who hear voices, their family, friends.
  • To provide training and education for mental health services and practitioners.

Description and Philosophy

The first hearing voices network was founded in the Netherlands in 1987 by the Dutch psychiatrist Marius Romme, the science journalist, Sandra Escher and voice hearer, Patsy Hage. This was followed by the founding of the UK network in 1988 based in Manchester, England. Subsequently Networks have been established in 29 countries over the world, including Australia (2005), Austria, Belgium, Bosnia, Canada, Denmark (2005), England (1988), Finland (1996), France (2011), Hungary (2013), Germany (1998), Greece, Ireland (2005), Italy, Japan, Kenya, Palestine, Malaysia, New Zealand (2007), Netherlands (1987), Norway, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Uganda, USA (2010) and Wales (2001). The first 15 years of the development of the global networks is outlined by Adam James in his book Raising Our Voices (2001).

These networks provide support to voice hearers specifically through the establishment of local hearing voices support groups, where people who hear voices are afforded the opportunity in a non-medical setting to share their experiences, coping mechanisms and explanatory frameworks. These groups are run in different ways and some are exclusive to individuals who hear voices, whilst others are supported by mental health workers.

National networks have developed considerably over the years and host websites, publish newsletters, guides to the voice hearing experience and workbooks where individuals can record and explore their own experiences with voice hearing.

Dutch psychiatrist Marius Romme, the co-author of Accepting Voices, has provided an intellectual basis for these group. He advocates a view that the hearing of voices is not necessarily an indication of mental illness, and that patients should be encouraged to explore their voices and negotiate with them.

Hearing Voices Groups

The development of peer support groups for voice-hearers, known as “hearing voices groups” (HVGs), are an essential part of the work of Hearing Voices Networks throughout the world. For instance there are over 180 groups in England, 60 in Australia and growing numbers of groups in the USA. The groups are based in a range of settings including community centres, libraries, pubs, churches, child and adolescent mental health services, prisons and inpatient units.

Hearing Voices Groups are based on an ethos of self-help, mutual respect and empathy. They provide a safe space for people to share their experiences and support one another. They are peer support groups, involving social support and belonging, not therapy or treatment. Hearing Voices Groups are intended to help people to understand and come to terms with their voices and begin to recover their lives.

Members are encouraged to talk about their experiences, to learn what the voices mean for them and how to gain control over their experiences. In voices groups, people are enabled to choose the way they want to manage their experiences. Voices groups assist people to access information and resources so they can make their own choices. Furthermore, voices groups allow people to explore the relationship between their life history and their experience of hearing voices, should they want to do so.

Studies have found that after attending hearing voices groups, members’ hospital bed use decreased. There was also a trend for less formal admissions. People used far more coping strategies and were able to talk to far more people about their voices after attending groups. Learning coping strategies was something people valued about groups and one of the common topics was to explore and experiment with different coping strategies. After attending groups, self-esteem increased. User empowerment also increased. Feeling more empowered is one of the aims of groups particularly valued by voice hearers and may be associated, not only with the voices themselves, but also with other aspects of recovery and getting better. People’s relationships with the voices were mostly improved. They heard the voices less frequently. The voices were perceived as less powerful (omnipotent) relative to them. People felt much better able to cope with their voices, and there were trends towards people feeling less controlled by their voices and feeling less alone. Perhaps most importantly, evaluations show that people improved in relation to what they had identified as their own goals for the group.

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What is the European Federation of Psychology Students’ Associations?

Introduction

The European Federation of Psychology Students’ Associations (EFPSA) is a not-for-profit, non-governmental student organisation that consists of psychology student associations from across Europe. EFPSA currently consists of 33 Member Organisations and two Observer Organisations, each represented by a Member Representative, who collectively form the legislative body of the Federation.

The work of the Federation is perpetuated through the work of the Member Representatives (MRs), the Executive Board (EB) and the Board of Management (BM). EFPSA provides psychology students with diverse opportunities for scientific- and self-development through its Events and Services. Additionally, EFPSA also aims to contribute to a positive impact in society through a variety of campaigns while representing the interest and needs of psychology students on a European level.

Brief History

EFPSA was founded in April 1987 at the University of Lisbon, Portugal where European psychology students from all over Europe had been invited to a meeting. Psychology students from eight European countries formed the European Federation of Psychology Students’ Associations (EFPSA).

The basic outlines of this Federation were transformed into formal statutes during the second meeting in Liege, Belgium in April 1988. At the same time, EFPSA initiated its first project, the EUROPSYCHO-Database on education and exchange. In January 1989, EFPSA was registered as an international association according to the Belgian law.

During the third General Assembly in April 1989 in Lund, Sweden, the Federation developed its initial structure with the first meeting of the Executive Board (EB) being held for the first time in that same year. In July 1991, EFPSA started a collaboration with the European Federation of Psychologists’ Associations (EFPA) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, after which EFPSA became an official affiliate member of EFPA in 2001.

After EFPSA’s participation in the first European Student Conference (which brought together about 500 students from a number of disciplines) in Liege (Belgium) in November 1990, a lot of new contacts were made, especially with Eastern European countries. During the fifth General Assembly in April 1991 in Geneva (Switzerland) EFPSA grew to 11 member countries, and the first delegation from Eastern Europe was welcomed. In this year the idea of permanent working groups (called “task forces”) came into being to enable more efficient work on projects such as EUROPSYCHO, ERASMUS, etc. Over the years leading up to new millennium, more Events in the form of Summer Schools and seminars and, of course, the Congress were organised under the guidance of EFPSA. In 2006, EFPSA developed its Corporate Visual Identity and became recognised with its representative logo and orange colour.

Structure

The structure of EFPSA was developed at the third General Assembly in April 1989 in Lund (Sweden). At this time, members of the Executive Board also covered the functions that Member Representatives do now. There were no Board of Management positions, only a President. Since then, EFPSA has grown in size and had to implement some significant structural changes, creating a new form of Executive Board. In 2003, the concept of National Representatives (nowadays known as Member Representatives) was introduced. These formed the new decision-making body from each of the associations which were members of EFPSA. Furthermore, the Board of Management as a separate body within the Executive Board was formed due to the need for leadership on strategic decisions, as well as monitoring the efficiency of the whole organisation.

Events

EFPSA currently organises eleven annual and one biennial event:

  • The Congress;
  • European Summer School (ESS);
  • EFPSA Academy;
  • Train the Trainers (TtT) Summer School;
  • Train Advanced Trainers (TAT);
  • Trainers’ Meeting (TRAM);
  • Trainers’ Conference (TRaC);
  • EFPSA Day; and
  • The Joint Executive Board & Member Representatives Meeting and Board of Management Meetings are the annual events, while the Conference is the biennial event.

European Summer School

The first European Summer School (ESS) took place in Leie, Estonia in 2007. with the topic ‘Cross-Cultural Psychology’ followed by European Summer Schools covering different topics each subsequent year. During this seven-day event students immerse themselves into a programme of intercultural research where they have the opportunity to join one of six research projects led by a PhD supervisor in planning and implementing a 12-month study. Apart from this, the programme is enriched by a variety of lectures given by professionals from relevant areas of psychology. Each year, all lectures and research are set against a theme, chosen to reflect a field of contemporary psychology. Since 2011, all ESS participants completing the training programme and committing to the research project have been invited to join the Junior Researcher Programme, extending the European Summer School from a one-week Event into a fully structured 12-month research programme.

EFPSA Day

EFPSA Day is a promotional event that takes place across Europe at the beginning of December. The first EFPSA Day was held in 2010. The aim of this one-day event is to spread the word about EFPSA all over Europe. Presentations, workshops and other activities connected with EFPSA take place in many universities on the same day in order to make as many students as possible familiar with EFPSA.

Train the Trainers

In 2010, the first Train the Trainers summer school took place in Austria.[9] The Train the Trainers (TtT) summer school is an annual seven-day event featuring experiential and non-formal education aimed at providing its participants with insights and tutoring on a broad set of skills and knowledge about delivering training and information. Upon completion of set requirements, the TtT graduates may be invited to join the EFPSA Trainers’ Pool – a supportive environment for furthering training skills and experiences.

EFPSA Conference

The EFPSA Conference first took place in Amsterdam, the Netherlands in 2013. The EFPSA Conference is a biennial event and places a particular emphasis on its scientific programme. It brings together around 150 students from all over Europe for four days of lectures, workshops and student presentations. During the Conference, there is an open day, which consists of approximately 30 students from the hosting country/region joining the Conference for one day, to get an opportunity to learn, partake in the lectures and network with the participants.

Journal of European Psychology Students

The Journal of European Psychology Students (JEPS) is a double-blind peer-reviewed open access academic journal run entirely by students, covering all aspects of psychology published by the EFPSA and Ubiquity Press since 2009. JEPS brings a legitimate opportunity for psychology students to consider their thesis or research with international scope. Submissions have to be based on research conducted by bachelor or master students who may also be from outside Europe. Authors of selected submissions will receive professional feedback and help in developing their scientific publication. Articles are selected based on quality of research alone, disregarding the perceived importance and originality of a particular paper. Articles are indexed in EBSCOHost. Since 2016, JEPS invites students to submit Registered Reports. The JEPS team also run a blog, the JEPS Bulletin, which has been publishing since November 2010 on a range of issues relevant to psychology students of all levels and varied fields of interest.

Member Organisations

Organisations from all countries recognised by the Council of Europe can become members of EFPSA. Organisations from countries/regions that are not recognised by the Council of Europe can be taken into consideration as Regional Members. As of April 2018, EFPSA has 33 Member Organisations and two Observer Organisations.

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What is the European Federation of Psychologists’ Associations?

Introduction

The European Federation of Psychologists’ Associations is the umbrella organisation of national societies in the field of psychology that are located in the European Economic Area.

Refer to the European Federation of Psychology Students’ Associations (EFPSA).

Brief History

The federation was founded in 1981 and the first general assembly was held in Heidelberg. Since then, general assemblies have been held every two years in different European cities. Since 1995, the general assembly is held in conjunction with the biennial European Congress of Psychology.

Aims

The federation is concerned with promoting and improving psychology as a profession and as a discipline, particularly, though not exclusively, in applied settings and with emphasis on the training and research associated with such practice. Its official journal is the European Psychologist. In 2009, the federation launched the EuroPsy register.

Member Associations

As of July 2019 the federation has 39 member associations, which together represent over 350,000 psychologists from all 28 members states of the European Union. In addition, there are 11 organisations registered as associate member associations and 2 that are registered as affiliate member associations.

EuroPsy

One of the major initiatives of the federation was the establishment of the EuroPsy or European Certificate in Psychology. This qualification sets a common standard for education, professional training and competence for psychologists to practice independently across Europe.

Aristotle Prize

The Aristotle Prize, established in 1995, is awarded by EFPA to a psychologist from Europe who has made a distinguished contribution to psychology.

Recipients of the prize have been:

  • 1995: Pieter Drenth.
  • 1997: Paul Baltes.
  • 1999: David Magnusson.
  • 2001: Alan Baddeley.
  • 2003: Lea Pulkkinen.
  • 2005: Rocio Fernandez-Ballesteros.
  • 2007: William Yule.
  • 2009: Claus Bundesen.
  • 2011: H. Marinus Van Ijzendoorn.
  • 2013: Niels Birbaumer.
  • 2015: José Maria Peiro.
  • 2017: CON AMORE – Centre on Autobiographical Memory Research.
  • 2019: Naomi Ellemers.

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What is the British Psychological Society?

Introduction

The British Psychological Society (BPS) is a representative body for psychologists and psychology in the United Kingdom.

Brief History

It was founded on 24 October 1901 at University College London (UCL) as The Psychological Society, the organisation initially admitted only recognised teachers in the field of psychology. The ten founder members were:

  • Robert Armstrong-Jones.
  • Sophie Bryant.
  • W.R. Boyce Gibson.
  • Frank Noel Hales.
  • William McDougall.
  • Frederick Walker Mott.
  • William Halse Rivers Rivers.
  • Alexander Faulkner Shand.
  • William George Smith.
  • James Sully.

Its current name of The British Psychological Society was taken in 1906 to avoid confusion with another group named The Psychological Society. Under the guidance of Charles Myers, membership was opened up to members of the medical profession in 1919. In 1941 the society was incorporated.

Mission

The Society aims to raise standards of training and practice in psychology, raise public awareness of psychology, and increase the influence of psychology practice in society. Specifically it has a number of key aims, as described below.

  • Setting standards of training for psychologists at graduate and undergraduate levels.
  • Providing information about psychology to the public.
  • Providing support to its members via its membership networks and mandatory continuing professional development.
  • Hosting conferences and events.
  • Preparing policy statements.
  • Publishing books, journals, the monthly magazine The Psychologist, the Research Digest blog, including a free fortnightly research update, and various other publications (see below).
  • Setting standards for psychological testing.
  • Maintaining a History of Psychology Centre.

Organisation

The Society is both a learned and a professional body. As such it provides support and advice on research and practice issues. It is also a Registered Charity which imposes certain constraints on what it can and cannot do. For example, it cannot campaign on issues which are seen as party political. The BPS is not the statutory regulation body for Practitioner Psychologists in the UK which is the Health and Care Professions Council.

The Society has a large number of specialist and regional branches throughout the United Kingdom. It holds its Annual Conference, usually in May, in a different town or city each year. In addition, each of the sub-sections hold their own conferences and there is also a range of specialist meetings convened to consider relevant issues.

The Society is also a publishing body publishing a range of specialist journals, books and reports.

Membership Grades and Post-Nominals

In 2019 the BPS had 60,604 members and subscribers, in all fields of psychology, 20,243 of whom were Chartered Members. There are a number of grades of members:

  • Student: (no post-nominal) The grade for students of psychology who do not meet the requirements for the following grades.
  • MBPsS: Member of the British Psychological Society – Awarded to graduates of an undergraduate degree accredited by the society, or have completed an accredited conversion course.
  • AFBPsS: Associate Fellow of the British Psychological Society – Associate Fellowship may be awarded to nominees who have satisfied one of the following conditions since first becoming eligible for graduate membership:
    • i) achieved eligibility for full membership of one of the society’s divisions and been successfully engaged in the professional application of a specialised knowledge of psychology for an aggregate of at least two calendar years full-time (or its part-time equivalent); or
    • ii) possess a research qualification in psychology and been engaged in the application, discovery, development or dissemination of psychological knowledge or practice for an aggregate of at least four years full time (or its part time equivalent); or
    • iii) published psychological works or exercised specialised psychological knowledge of a standard not less than in 1 or 2 above.
  • FBPsS: Fellow of the British Psychological Society – Fellowship may be awarded to nominees who have made an outstanding contribution to psychology by satisfying the following criteria:
    • i) been engaged in work of a psychological nature (other than undergraduate training) for a total period of at least 10 years; and
    • ii) possess an advanced knowledge of psychology in at least one of its fields; and
    • iii) made an outstanding contribution to the advancement or dissemination of psychological knowledge or practice either by your own research, teaching, publications or public service, or by organising and developing the work of others.
  • HonFBPsS: Honorary Fellows of the British Psychological Society – Honorary Fellowship is awarded for distinguished service in the field of psychology.

Professional Qualifications

  • CPsychol: Chartered Psychologist – Following the receipt of a royal charter in 1965, the society became the keeper of the Register of Chartered Psychologists.
    • The register was the means by which the Society could regulate the professional practice of psychology.
    • Regulation included the awarding of practising certificates and the conduct of disciplinary proceedings.
    • The register ceased to be when statutory regulation of psychologists began on 01 July 2009.
    • The profession is now regulated by the Health and Care Professions Council.
    • A member of the British Psychological Society (MBPsS) who has achieved chartered status has the right to the letters “CPsychol” after his or her name.
  • CSci: Chartered Scientist – The Society is licensed by the Science Council for the registration of Chartered Scientists.
  • EuroPsy: European Psychologist – The Society is a member of the European Federation of Psychologists’ Associations (EFPA), and can award this designation to Chartered Psychologists.

Society Publications

Journals

  • The BPS publishes the following journals:
    • British Journal of Clinical Psychology.
    • British Journal of Developmental Psychology.
    • British Journal of Educational Psychology.
    • British Journal of Health Psychology.
    • British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology.
    • British Journal of Psychology.
    • British Journal of Social Psychology.
    • Journal of Neuropsychology.
    • Journal of Occupational and Organisational Psychology.
    • Legal and Criminological Psychology.
    • Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice.
    • Counselling Psychology Review.
  • Special Group in Coaching Psychology publications:
    • International Coaching Psychology Review.
    • The Coaching Psychologist.

The Psychologist

The Psychologist is a members’ monthly magazine that has been published since 1988, superseding the BPS Bulletin.

The Research Digest

Since 2003 the BPS has published reports on new psychology research in the form of a free fortnightly email, and since 2005, also in the form of an online blog – both are referred to as the BPS Research Digest. As of 2014, the BPS states that the email has over 32,000 subscribers and the Digest blog attracts hundreds of thousands of page views a month. In 2010 the Research Digest blog won “best psychology blog” in the inaugural Research Blogging Awards. The Research Digest has been written and edited by psychologist Christian Jarrett since its inception.

Books

The Society publishes a series of textbooks in collaboration with Wiley-Blackwell. These cover most of the core areas of psychology.

Member Networks

The British Psychological Society currently has ten divisions and nineteen sections. Divisions and sections differ in that the former are open to practitioners in a certain field of psychology, so professional and qualified psychologists only will be entitled to full membership of a division, whereas the latter are interest groups comprising members of the BPS who are interested in a particular academic aspect of psychology.

Divisions

The divisions include:

  • Division of Academics, Researchers and Teachers in Psychology.
  • Division of Clinical Psychology.
  • Division of Counselling Psychology.
  • Division of Educational and Child Psychology.
  • Division of Forensic Psychology.
  • Division of Health Psychology.
  • Division of Neuropsychology.
  • Division of Occupational Psychology.
  • Division of Sport and Exercise Psychology.
  • Scottish Division of Educational Psychology.

The Division of Clinical Psychology is the largest division within the BPS – it is subdivided into thirteen faculties:

  • Addiction.
  • Children, Young People and their Families.
  • Clinical Health Psychology.
  • Eating Disorders.
  • Forensic Clinical Psychology.
  • HIV and Sexual Health.
  • Holistic Psychology.
  • Leadership and Management.
  • Intellectual Disabilities.
  • Oncology and Palliative Care.
  • Perinatal Psychology.
  • Psychosis and Complex Mental Health.
  • Psychology of Older People.

Statutory Regulation

BPS has been concerned with the question of statutory registration of psychologists since the 1930s. It received its charter in 1965 and an amendment in 1987 which allowed it to maintain a register of psychologists. The UK government announced its intention to widen statutory regulation, to include inter alia psychologists, following a number of scandals arising in the 1990s in the psychotherapy field. The BPS was in favour of statutory regulation, but opposed the proposed regulator, the Health Professions Council (HPC), preferring the idea of a new Psychological Professions Council which would map quite closely onto its own responsibilities. The government resisted this, however, and in June 2009, under the Health Care and Associated Professions (Miscellaneous Amendments) Order, regulation of most of the psychology professions passed to the HCPC, the renamed Health and Care Professions Council.

Society Offices

The Society’s main office is currently in Leicester in the United Kingdom. According to BPS HR department, as of April 2019 there were 113 staff members at the Leicester office, 9 in London. There are also smaller regional offices in Belfast, Cardiff, Glasgow. The archives are deposited at the Wellcome Library in the Euston Road, London.

Logo and YouTube

The British Psychological Society’s logo is an image of the Greek mythical figure Psyche, personification of the soul, holding a Victorian oil lamp. The use of her image is a reference to the origins of the word psychology. The lamp symbolises learning and is also a reference to the story of Psyche. Eros was in love with Psyche and would visit her at night, but had forbidden her from finding out his identity. She was persuaded by her jealous sisters to discover his identity by holding a lamp to his face as he slept. Psyche accidentally burnt him with oil from the lamp, and he awoke and flew away.

The Society has its own YouTube channel.

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What is the British Psychotherapy Foundation?

Introduction

The British Psychotherapy Foundation, Bpf, is the successor organisation to three former long-established British psychotherapy providers and clinical training institutions which merged in April 2013.

The original constituents are the British Association of Psychotherapists, BAP (1951), The Lincoln Clinic and Centre for Psychotherapy (1968) and the London Centre for Psychotherapy, LCP, (1976). It is unique in the United Kingdom for providing treatment services for children and adults in all the psychoanalytic modalities, that is of Freudian and Jungian inspiration. It is also unique in providing professional training in those modalities within one institution and is regulated by the British Psychoanalytic Council. It has charitable status. Its current associations are:

  • British Jungian Analytic Association (BJAA), a member society of the International Association for Analytical Psychology;
  • Independent Psychoanalytic Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy Association (IPCAPA); and
  • Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy Association (PPA).

Brief History

Until it de-merged in 2019, the recently formed, British Psychoanalytic Association has been a fourth constituent of Bpf, (it was integral to the BAP).

Bpf runs MSc and Phd programmes in Psychodynamics of Human Development with Birkbeck, University of London in Jungian and Psychoanalytic modalities. Bpf and the University of Exeter offer a two-year Clinical Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy or Psychodynamic Psychotherapy training in Devon. The Bpf is the owner, (acquired by BAP in 2006) and publisher with John Wiley & Son of the foremost British academic journal in the field since 1984, The British Journal of Psychotherapy.

Notable Members

  • Rosemary Gordon.
  • Carol Topolski.
  • Clare Winnicott.

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What is the British Psychoanalytical Society?

Introduction

The British Psychoanalytical Society was founded by the British neurologist Ernest Jones as the London Psychoanalytical Society on 30 October 1913.

It is one of two organisations in Britain training psychoanalysts, the other being the British Psychoanalytic Association.

The society has been home to a number of important Psychoanalysts, including Wilfred Bion, Donald Winnicott, Anna Freud and Melanie Klein. Today it has over 400 members and is a member organisation of the International Psychoanalytical Association.

Establishment and Name

Psychoanalysis was founded by Sigmund Freud, and much of the early work on Psychoanalysis was carried out in Freud’s home city of Vienna and in central Europe. However, in the early 1900’s Freud began to spread his theories throughout the English speaking world. Around this time he established a relationship with Ernest Jones, a British neurosurgeon who had read his work in German and met Freud at the inaugural Psychoanalytical Congress in Salzburg. Jones went on to take up a teaching post at the University of Toronto, in which capacity he established the American Psychoanalytic Association.

When Jones returned to London, he established the society in 1913, as the London Psychoanalytical Society. The society had 9 founding members including William Mackenzie, Maurice Nicoll and David Eder. Almost immediately, the society was caught up in the international controversy between Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud. Many of the society’s membership were followers of Jung’s theories, although Jones himself enjoyed a close relationship with Freud and wished for the society to be unambiguously Freudian. Jones had joined Freud’s Inner circle in 1912, and helped to oust Jung from the International Psychoanalytical Association.

However, the outbreak of World War One in 1914 meant that the nascent society, which depended heavily on correspondence with psychoanalysts in Vienna, then part of Austria-Hungary, had to be suspended. There were a few informal meetings during the war, but these became less and less frequent as the war went on.

In 1919, Ernest Jones re-founded the society as the British Psychoanalytical Society, and served as its President. He took the opportunity to define the society as Freudian in nature, and removed most of the Jungian members. With the help of John Rickman, the society established a clinic and a training arm, known as the Institute of Psychoanalysis.

Interwar Years

In the 1920s, Ernest Jones and the society grew increasingly under the influence of Melanie Klein. Jones was inspired by her writings to develop several of his own psychoanalytical concepts. In 1925, Klein delivered a series of talks at the society on her theories. Klein’s work was well received in London, but it attracted increasing controversy on the continent, where the majority of psychoanalysts were still based. Realising that her ideas were not warmly received at the Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute, where Klein was based, Jones invited her to move to London, which she did later in 1925.

The rise of the Nazi Party in Germany and later in Austria, led to increasing numbers of German and Austrian Psychoanalysts fleeing to London, where they joined the burgeoning society. By 1937, 13 out of 71 members were refugees from Europe. Ernest Jones personally intervened to bring Sigmund Freud and his daughter, Anna Freud, to London. In 1938, Sigmund Freud wrote to Jones:

“The events of recent years have made London the principal site and center of the psychoanalytical movement. May the society carry out the functions thus falling to it in the most brilliant manner.”

By the start of the second world war, 34 out of 90 members were emigres from the continent.

However, the assimilation of so many prominent Psychoanalysts from continental Europe created tensions. The huge difference in the approaches of Anna Freud and Melanie Klein led to the development of several factions. Increasingly, presentations of papers at the society became thinly veiled attacks on opposing factions theories. For example, in March 1937 Melitta Schmideberg (Klein’s daughter) presented her paper: “After the Analysis – Some Phantasies of Patients”, which viciously attacked almost all of Klein’s ideas, though it did not mention her by name.

The views of the different Psychoanalysts: Kleinian, Freudian, and those who were not affiliated with either, led to increasing dysfunction, and things became so bad that a specific committee had to be established to deal with the problem.

The ‘Controversial Discussions’

By 1942, relations between the factions within the society had become so heated that a committee had to be convened to facilitate monthly discussions on the scientific nature of the society. The committee was chaired by three members of the society, each representing one of the major factions:

  • James Strachey: A member of the British Independent Group.
  • Marjorie Brierley: An ally of Melanie Klein.
  • Edward Glover: Who identified as ‘pure Freudian’, in opposition to Melanie Klein. Glover resigned from the society in 1944, along with several other Freudian psychoanalysts.

After heated debate, the committee resolved to a “gentleman’s agreement” – which ensured that each faction would have equal representation within all committees within the society. It was also agreed that training of future psychoanalysts at the institute would be organised into two pathways: one Kleinian, and one Freudian.

After World War Two

With the resolution of the controversial discussions, the society became dominated by independent psychoanalysts such as Donald Winnicott, Michael Balint or Wilfred Bion.

The Society Today

Through its related bodies, the Institute of Psychoanalysis and the London Clinic of Psychoanalysis, it is involved in the teaching, development, and practice of psychoanalysis at its headquarters at Byron House, west London. It is a constituent organisation of the International Psychoanalytical Association and a member institution of the British Psychoanalytic Council.

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What is Schizophrenics Anonymous?

Introduction

Schizophrenics Anonymous is a peer support group to help people who are affected by schizophrenia and related disorders including bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder, psychotic depression and psychosis.

Brief History

The programme was established in Detroit in 1985. The founder was Joanne Verbanic, who was diagnosed with schizophrenia in 1970. Shortly before forming SA, Verbanic publicly disclosed her diagnosis and discussed her illness on national television in an effort to challenge the stigma associated with the condition. She was a 2006 recipient of a Lilly Reintegration Award in recognition of her lifetime contributions to the mental health community, and she continued to be active as a spokesperson for persons with schizophrenia and other mental illness until her death on 07 May 2015.

By 2007, more than 150 local SA groups operated in 31 of the 50 United States, and in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Mexico, France, India and Venezuela.

Technical support for Schizophrenics Anonymous was provided by the National Schizophrenia Foundation (NSF) until 2007 when NSF ceased operations. In response to the loss of a national sponsor, a group of consumers, family members, and mental health providers came together to form a not-for-profit organisation, Schizophrenia and Related Disorders Alliance of America (SARDAA).

SARDAA promotes recovery for persons with schizophrenia and related brain disorders including bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder, depression with psychosis, and experience with psychosis. They envision a future in which every person with a schizophrenia-related brain disorder has the opportunity to recover from their disorders. The name Schizophrenics Anonymous was changed to Schizophrenia Alliance in 2015 and added Psychosis Support and Acceptance in 2018. They provide an online directory of SA groups, sponsor five weekly SA conference calls, and one Family and Friends conference call. At their annual conference, the group trains individuals and groups who have started or would like to start an SA group.

Although some SA groups are organised by mental health professionals, research has suggested that peer-led SA groups are more sustainable and longer lasting. Some groups are organised in psychiatric hospitals or jails and are not open to the public.

Programme Principles

The SA programme is based on the twelve-step model, but includes just six steps. The organisation describes the programme’s purpose of helping participants to learn about schizophrenia, “restore dignity and sense of purpose,” obtain “fellowship, positive support, and companionship,” improve their attitudes about their lives and their illnesses, and take “positive steps towards recovery.”

Joanne Verbanic wrote the original “Schizophrenics Anonymous” book, better known as “The Blue Book,” which describes the six steps to recovery. The steps require members to admit they need help, take responsibility for their choices and consequences, believe they have the inner strength to help themselves and others, forgive themselves and others, understand that false beliefs contribute to their problems and change those beliefs, and decide to turn their lives over to a higher power.

Research

One study about the risks of professional partnerships centres on the partnership between Schizophrenics Anonymous (SA) and the Mental Health Association of Michigan (MHAM) over a 14-year period. The study shows that the professional partnership resulted in increased access to SA Groups across Michigan and organisation expansion and development within SA. The professional influence also lead more SA Groups to be held in more traditional mental health treatment settings and led to more professional-led SA groups.

Self-help groups are more available to people who live independently. Researchers at Michigan State University studied whether SA would be successful in group homes. The results were positive: the groups had high attendance and participation and were well liked. However, staff members controlled who could lead and who could attend the meetings, and how the meetings should be run. The programs fell apart. The same obstacle occurred in SA groups started in prisons and monitored by employees.

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What is the Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities?

Introduction

The Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities is part of the Mental Health Foundation, a UK charity founded in 1949, and operates as a directorate within the charity.

Background

The Mental Health Foundation originally funded research in both learning disabilities and mental health.

In 1999, it created the separate Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities.

The aim of the Foundation is to promote the rights, quality of life and opportunities of people with learning disabilities and their families.

What is the Mental Health Foundation (UK)?

Introduction

The Mental Health Foundation is a UK charity, whose mission is “to help people to thrive through understanding, protecting, and sustaining their mental health.”

Refer to Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities.

Brief History

The Mental Health Foundation was founded in 1940 as the Mental Health Research Fund. It was founded by Derek Richter, a neurochemist and director of research at Whitchurch Hospital. Richter enlisted the help of stockbroker Ian Henderson, who became the chair, while Victoria Cross recipient Geoffrey Vickers became chair of the research committee.

In 1972, the Mental Health Foundation took its current name, shifting its “focus away from laboratory research and towards working directly with—and learning from—people [who] experience mental health problems.”

The Foundation has also focussed on “overlooked and under-researched areas,” including personality disorders and issues affecting various ethnic groups. In 1999, the Foundation took their work with learning disabilities forwards, creating the Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities.

Mental Health Awareness Week

Each year, starting on the second Monday of May, the Mental Health Foundation hosts Mental Health Awareness Week, the UK’s national week to raise awareness of mental health and mental health problems and inspire action to promote the message of good mental health for all.

Mental Health Awareness Week was first held in 2001, and became one of the biggest mental health awareness events in the world.

Themes

  • 2019 Body Image: How We Think and Feel About Our Bodies.
  • 2018 Stress: Are We Coping?.
  • 2017 Surviving or Thriving?.
  • 2016 Relationships.
  • 2015 Mindfulness.
  • 2014 Anxiety.
  • 2013 Physical Activity and Wellbeing.

Green Ribbon

The green ribbon is the “international symbol for mental health awareness.”

The Foundation’s green ribbon ambassadors, include: Olly Alexander, Aisling Bea, Olivia Colman, Matt Haig, David Harewood, Nadiya Hussain, Grant Hutchison, Alex Lawther, and Graham Norton.

The movement uses the hashtag #PinItForMentalHealth.

Funding

The Foundation’s total income for the financial year ending 31 March 2018 was £5.8m, with sources including donations (individual and corporate), legacies and grants.

Organisation

The Foundation is an incorporated UK charity headed by a board of 12 trustees. Keith Leslie was appointed Chairman of the board of trustees in 2014.

The president of the Foundation is Dinesh Bhugra and the patron is Princess Alexandra.