What is the Revolving Doors Agency?

Introduction

Formed on 17 August 1993, the Revolving Doors Agency (RDA), also known as Revolving Doors, is a charitable organisation in the United Kingdom which works across England and Wales.

Through research, policy and campaigning work, the organisation aims to improve services for people with multiple needs who are in repeat contact with the criminal justice system.

Vision

The vision of the organisation is that by 2025 there is an end to the revolving door of crisis and crime, when anyone facing multiple problems and poor mental health is supported to reach their potential, with fewer victims and safer communities as a result.

Activities

To fulfil its vision, Revolving Doors organises its work around three areas:

AreaDescription
Policy and CommunicationsWorking with policymakers in national and local government, across Whitehall and in local and regional authorities, to improve responses for the revolving doors group. This work is informed by their research, the work of the organisation’s service user forums and their partnership and development work across the country.
Service User InvolvementThe organisation operates a national service user forum and a young peoples’ forum. The Forums bring together individuals from different areas of the country who have experienced mental health and other problems and have had contact with the criminal justice system. The forums are designed to root the organizations work in the reality of people’s experiences.
Local Partnerships and DevelopmentRevolving Doors works with organisations and individuals across England and Wales to demonstrate solutions for the revolving doors group.

Definition

The revolving door group refers to the experiences of people who are caught in a cycle of crisis, crime and mental illness, whereby they are repeatedly in contact with the police and often detained in prison as well as being victims of crime themselves. This is a group that often has multiple problems for which they need the input of a wide range of agencies, including housing, drugs, mental health, and benefits. The mental health problems of the group are usually a core or exacerbating factor. Routinely, they fall through the gaps of existing mental health service provision, as their mental health problems are not considered sufficiently “severe” to warrant care from statutory services; but they are frequently excluded from mainstream services in the community, such as GPs and Housing Associations, on account of the perceived complexity of their needs and their often challenging behaviour. Consequently, the lack of support contributes to a downward spiral that brings people into contact with the criminal justice system. It is estimated that the number of individuals within the revolving door group is approximately 60,000 at any one time.

Organisation

Formation

In 1992 a report undertaken by NACRO (a social justice charity) and an ITV Telethon identified a group of people who were caught in a downward cycle of homelessness and found themselves in repeat contact with both the mental health and criminal justice system. This group was identified as the ‘revolving doors’ group, which subsequent research has estimated to include 60,000 people at any one time.

Following the publication of the report in 1993, the Revolving Doors Agency was established by some of the parties involved in the initial publication who sought to demonstrate new ways of working in these three areas of criminal justice, mental health and homelessness. The focus of the organisation was on the people who kept falling between the mainstream services in the community.

Initially, the organisation conducted research in prisons and police stations to identify the needs of the revolving doors group and establish the issues they faced.

In the late 1990s the organisation established a series of experimental services, called Link Worker Schemes, to test effective interventions for their target group. The schemes offered individuals practical and emotional support, assisting them to access appropriate services and to address the underlying causes of their offending behaviour. An independent evaluation conducted by the Home Office found that the scheme cut reoffending by 22%.

Following a strategic review in 2006, the organisation adjusted its focus to research, policy and campaigning work in relation to people who become stuck in a cycle of mental health problems and crime. The Link Worker Schemes were passed over to other voluntary sector providers.

Funding

The organisation is funded by charitable donations from individuals, grants from statutory bodies and applications to charitable foundations. Recent funders include the Big Lottery Fund, the Esmée Fairbairn Foundation, The Henry Smith Charity, the Paul Hamlyn Foundation, the Pilgrim Trust and Trusts for London. The organisation has previously received funding from Comic Relief.

Revolving Doors has also received pro-bono support from Clifford Chance who, in partnership with the University of Cambridge Pro Bono Society, assisted the organisation with additional research.

Governance

Revolving Doors is governed by a Board of Trustees who oversee the activities of the organisation, which itself is run by a team of nine members of staff who are supported by associates across the country. The organisation is a registered private company limited by guarantee, with no share capital, which means it is run for non-profit purposes. It is a recognised as a charity by the Charities Commission.

Partnerships

The organisation affiliates itself to the Criminal Justice Alliance, a coalition of 58 organisations involved in policy and practice across the criminal justice system, the Mental Health Alliance, a coalition of 75 organisations which aims to secure a better mental health legislation, and the Transition to Adulthood Alliance, which works to improve the opportunities and life chances of young people in their transition to adulthood, who are at risk of committing crime and falling into the criminal justice system.

Patrons

The current patrons of Revolving Doors are Lord David Ramsbotham GCB CBE (Former Chief Inspector of Prisons), the Rt Hon. Hilary Armstrong (Former Member of Parliament for North West Durham and Cabinet Minister for Social Exclusion and Duchy of Lancaster), Ian Bynoe (Former Acting Deputy Chair of the Independent Police Complaints Commission), Rose Fitzpatrick (Acting Assistant Commissioner for the Metropolitan Police), Professor John Gunn (Professor of Forensic Psychiatry at the University of Birmingham), Dru Sharpling CBE (London Director of the Crown Prosecution Service), His Honour Judge Fabyan Evans, Bharat Mehta OBE (Chief Executive of Trusts for London), Joe Simpson (Consultant) and Peter Wrench, Consultant and Writer, former Prison Service and Home Office Director.

Publications

Revolving Doors has published a number of works with a focus on the revolving doors group who have mental health problems within the criminal justice system, including a report on the financial impact of supporting women with multiple needs in the criminal justice system. This report established that an investment of £18 million per year England-wide in interventions could reduce the cost to the state by £384m over three years and almost £1 billion over five years.

In 2012, Revolving Doors Published Integrated Offender Management – Effective alternatives to short sentences. It also published Ending the Revolving Door – guidance for Police and Crime Commissioners.

Reception

Revolving Doors is widely regarded as one of the UK’s leading charities concerned with mental health and the criminal justice system.

In 2002 the organisation received two UK Charity Awards, which are given for outstanding achievements within the UK not-for-profit sector, in the category of Research, Advice and Support, as well as being the Overall Winner.

In 2006 the Revolving Doors Agency received an award from the Care Services Improvement Partnership, part of the Care Services Directorate at the Department of Health, for their Link Worker Scheme in the London Borough of Islington. The same year, the organisation was also highly commended by the Centre for Social Justice.

In 2010, Neighbourhood Link, a scheme in the Islington developed in partnership by St. Mungo’s and the Revolving Doors Agency, was highlighted as evidence of good-practice by the Cabinet Office. The scheme helps people with multiple and complex needs who are either involved in crime or at risk of becoming involved in crime and becoming homeless. As a result of the project, contact with the police amongst the users has fallen from 31% to 9%.

What is the Pan American Health Organisation?

Introduction

The Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO) is an international public health agency working to improve the health and living standards of the people of the Americas.

It is part of the United Nations system, serving as the Regional Office for the Americas of the World Health Organisation (WHO) and as the health organisation of the Inter-American System. It is known in Latin America as the OPS or OPAS (Spanish: Organización Panamericana de la Salud; Portuguese: Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde).

Brief History

The organisation was founded in December 1902. It was originally called the Pan-American Sanitary Bureau.  In 1949, PAHO and WHO signed an agreement making PAHO the American Regional Office (AMRO) of WHO. Today the usual phrasing is “Regional Office for the Americas”. The first hemisphere-wide effort to eradicate smallpox was made in 1950 by the PAHO. The campaign was successful in eliminating smallpox from all countries of the Americas except Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Ecuador.

Background

PAHO has scientific and technical expertise at its headquarters, in its 27 country offices, and its three Pan American centres, all working with the countries of the Americas in dealing with priority health issues. The health authorities of PAHO’s Member States set PAHO’s technical and administrative policies through its Governing Bodies. The PAHO Member States include all 35 countries in the Americas; Puerto Rico is an Associate Member. France, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland are the Participating States, and Portugal and Spain are the Observer States.

The Organization’s essential mission is to strengthen national and local health systems and improve the health of the peoples of the Americas, in collaboration with Ministries of Health, other government and international agencies, non-governmental organisations (NGO), universities, social security agencies, community groups, and many others.

PAHO promotes universal health coverage and universal access to health and strengthening of health systems based on primary health care strategies. It assists countries in fighting infectious diseases such as malaria, cholera, dengue, HIV and tuberculosis as well as the region’s growing epidemic of noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. PAHO engages in technical cooperation with ministries of health and facilitates coordination with other sectors to promote health in all policies. PAHO also promotes the use of research evidence to inform health care decisions and policymaking through the implementation of knowledge translation strategies such as the Evidence-Informed Policy Network – EVIPNet Evipnet. Through the Elimination Initiative, it targets HIV/AIDS.

In its efforts to improve health, PAHO targets the most vulnerable groups including mothers and children, workers, the poor, the elderly, and refugees, and displaced persons. It focuses on issues related to equity for those who lack access to health, and on a Pan American approach, encouraging countries to work together on common issues and build lasting capacities.

Specific initiatives spearheaded by PAHO include the Expanded Programme on Immunisation, which played a major role in the elimination of smallpox and polio from the Americas; the Tobacco-free Americas initiative; the Regional Coalition for Water and Sanitation to Eliminate Cholera in Hispaniola; the Salt Smart Consortium; the Pan American Network for Drug Regulatory Harmonization; and a blood safety initiative that seeks to improve blood safety and efficiency by helping countries reach 100% blood supplies from unpaid voluntary donors.

A major priority for the Americas is cutting infant mortality, and PAHO is mobilising new political, institutional, and financial resources to prevent an additional 25,000 infant deaths every year through the application of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy, a simple and practical approach in which primary health care workers are taught a complete process to evaluate the health status of children brought to a health post or clinic. They learn to recognise signs of disease and evaluate and treat them. They learn to give parents information on how to prevent disease in the home. If they see danger signs indicating the infant could die, they are taught to treat the child immediately or take him or her to a hospital.

Improvement of drinking water supplies, adequate sanitation, and increased access to health care for the poor are still top priorities for PAHO, with a focus on equity. The Organisation is intensifying its efforts to have countries know the true state of health of their populations and where the inequalities lie. Programme efforts focus on correcting inequality, taking into account decentralisation and change of state functions, on showing that health has a role to play in the success of other sectors, and on how attention to health affects positively other aspects of human development. Advocacy in this area is also directed to reducing pernicious gender inequity, which reflects in some health problems of women.

The Pan American approach is a part of PAHO history and the spirit of Panamericanism continues to stimulate technical cooperation among countries in health. PAHO has helped countries work together toward common goals, and to initiate multi-country health ventures in Central America, the Caribbean, the Andean Region, and the Southern Cone. Experience has shown practical benefits such as the solidarity that helped Central America after hurricane Mitch, and there are numerous other examples. Health collaboration found expression at the highest political level when American heads of state in their Summit in Santiago accepted a health initiative called “Health Technology Linking the Americas.”

The countries of Latin America and the Caribbean joined together over 20 years ago to buy vaccines through a revolving fund, bringing them tangible benefits and helping advance PAHO’s efforts to eliminate or control vaccine-preventable diseases. These are among the Organisation’s most notable successes, starting with the eradication of smallpox from the Americas in 1973; a triumph followed five years later by global eradication of the dreaded disease.

A major effort committing the Americas to embark on polio eradication in 1985 succeeded in September 1994, when a distinguished International Commission declared the Americas officially polio-free. The last case of polio in the Americas was identified on August 23, 1991, in a young boy named Luis Fermín Tenorio Cortez, in Junín, Peru. Since then, despite intensive surveillance, no cases of polio have been detected anywhere in the Americas, and the WHO is now working toward the goal of eradicating polio globally. PAHO assists the countries in mobilising the necessary resources to provide immunisation and treatment services for all vaccine-preventable diseases. PAHO is close to accomplishing the goal of eliminating measles from this hemisphere and is pressing on with the introduction of new vaccines that are currently available, such as Haemophilus influenzae B. to reduce meningitis and respiratory infections. PAHO works to reduce the toll of death and illness from diarrheal diseases, including cholera, through case management and oral rehydration therapy to prevent deaths from dehydration, and to provide adequate diagnosis and treatment of acute respiratory infections, thus saving the lives of hundreds of thousands of children each year.

PAHO disseminates scientific and technical information through its publications program, its Internet site, and a network of academic libraries, documentation centres, and local health care libraries.

The Organisation provides technical collaboration in a variety of specialised public health fields and organises emergency preparedness and disaster relief coordination. It supports efforts to strengthen national health systems, develop national health research systems, control malaria, Chagas’ disease, urban rabies, leprosy, and other diseases that affect the people of the Americas. PAHO collaborates with governments, other agencies, and private groups to address major nutritional problems including protein-energy malnutrition, and is now working to eliminate iodine and vitamin A deficiencies.

It engages in and facilitates health promotion to help countries deal with health problems typical of development and urbanisation, especially non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, accidents, smoking, addiction to drugs and alcohol, and injuries among others. Beyond health promotion, PAHO also addresses health systems and quality of care issues in support of national efforts to respond to the NCD pandemic.

The Organisation also executes projects for other United Nations agencies, for international organisations such as the World Bank and Inter-American Development Bank, for official development cooperation agencies of various governments, and for philanthropic foundations.

PAHO strengthens the health sector capacity in the countries to advance their priority programmes through intersectoral action, promoting an integrated approach to health problems. It also works to improve women’s health, promoting the greater integration of women in society, as well as awareness of their importance as both recipients and providers of health services.

PAHO trains health workers at all levels, through fellowships, courses and seminars, and the strengthening of national training institutions. It leads to the use of advanced communications technologies for information, health promotion, and education, working with journalists in many countries.

The Organisation recognises the role of the private sector in the delivery of services and fosters dialogue and partnerships with the Ministries of Health. In addition to its core budget financed by quota contributions from its Member Governments, PAHO also seeks outside funding to help implement special programmes and initiatives in response to vital health needs. Voluntary tax-deductible contributions for PAHO health and education projects in the Americas may be made to the PAHO Foundation.

Headquarters Building

In March 1960, President Eisenhower signed into law a bill passed by the US Congress authorising the US government to purchase and donate a lot for the PAHO headquarters in Washington, D.C. At the meeting of its Executive Committee in April 1960, the PAHO decided to accept the USG’s offer and set forth parameters for proceeding with the project of a new headquarters building. PAHO decided to use an international open competition as the means of selecting an architect for the project, following the recent successful model of other international organisations (most notably the United Nations New York headquarters inaugurated in 1952, and the UNESCO Paris headquarters in 1953 – both resulting in landmark designs of modernist architecture). PAHO framed the competition based on standards developed by the International Union of Architects and determined that the competition should be open to architects from all countries of the Americas. The vision was that “the new building should be a monument to international health cooperation.”

Following a review of 58 entries, the PAHO in October 1961 declared Uruguayan architect Román Fresnedo Siri the winner of its competition. At the ceremony announcing him as a winner, the organization’s Director Abraham Horwitz said “this beautiful building will become a monument to the ideal of better health for the peoples of the Americas.” He described the winning design as one of “both grace and utility,” and said, “it reflects the high ideals of the Pan-American spirit in an age when we must move ahead to build a better future for our peoples.”

The building was designed in a modernist style by Fresnedo Siri in part as a tribute to Le Corbusier, a key influence on Fresnedo Siri’s work. Constructed in 1965, the exterior features 29 round bronze seals of the founding nations of the Pan American Health Organisation set in black stone. Each medallion is 2.5 feet (0.76 m) in diameter and were designed by American sculptor Michael Lantz. They were originally meant to be carved in granite. The east side of the south façade (left to right) seals are for: France, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, the Netherlands, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, and Venezuela. The west side of the south façade seals are for: Argentina, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, and El Salvador. In 1993 the seals were surveyed by the Smithsonian Institution’s Save Outdoor Sculpture! program and were described as needing conservation treatment.

The building is situated on a triangular lot of just over one acre nestled between Virginia Avenue, E Street, and 23rd Street, Northwest, in the Foggy Bottom neighbourhood of Washington. Constructed of reinforced concrete over a steel frame with an exterior of glass and marble, the building is one of Washington’s most recognised examples of mid-century modern architecture. The building is divided into two distinct volumes: a gracefully curved ten-story building that hosts the organization’s main offices, and an adjoining four-story cylindrical annex that serves as the congress hall for formal assemblies of the PAHO member state delegates, as well as other meetings and events. It is surrounded by George Washington University to the north and east, the Columbia Plaza office/residential complex to the west, and the State Department to the south across the E street expressway underpass.

The main building features soaring white vertical columnar ribs evenly separating dark vertical columns of glass. There are no horizontal lines to compete with the vertical symmetry; the building’s vertical ribs disappear along “blind gables” into an invisible roofline. In the formalism and attention to symmetry, Fresnedo Siri said he was trying to stay true to the “classic spirit of the city of Washington.” The interplay of light and dark is accentuated by the use of white American marble, black Mexican granite, and dark gray glass. The building’s slender, windowless west and east sides are clad in white marble, while the black granite frames all the ground floor elements, including the entry portico, the hidden downward ramp to an underground garage, and the reflecting pool and garden elements.

Fresnedo Siri placed the main building on 20 rounded pilotis (columns) that lift it a full story above ground level. He employed this signature element of mid-century modernist design to maximise the open pedestrian plaza space on the relatively small and unusually shaped lot while enhancing visual transparency and flow. He added reflecting pools with fountains at the base of each building – his vision was that the cylindrical congress hall, in particular, would appear to be “emerging from the water.” The thin vertical streams spurting up from the fountains would echo the symmetry of the columns and vertical ribbing of the main building. A row of 42 flag poles (representing each PAHO member state) reinforces still further the building’s dancing array of vertical symmetries, while also gracefully delineating the Northeastern edge of the property site. Unfortunately, the reflecting pools years later were eliminated, filled in and replaced by garden plots.

Fresnedo Siri purposefully placed the convex side of the curved main office building to the north, smoothly integrating it into the urban streetscape of similarly sized office, university and residential buildings. This allowed the concave side of the building to face the open side of the lot, gently cradling the congress hall annex while framing the contours of the small but appealing pedestrian plaza area that flows toward the site’s open southern side.

The cylindrical annex’s around the central congress hall are about 92 feet (28 m) in diameter and seat up to 300 people. The single open space soars upward, filling the top three levels of the building. Fresnedo Siri designed a dramatic spider web-like steel structure to support the building, allowing the entire interior space to be free of any supporting columns. The resulting internal space, naturally lit by windows throughout the cylinder’s full 360 degrees, achieves an impressive sense of openness and purity of design. The cylindrical building is encased on the outside by a lattice-like grill of diamond-shaped hexagons composed of white marble, quartz and Portland cement. The recessed ground floor space of the cylinder is encased in the same Mexican black granite used for all the site’s ground-level elements, creating a striking contrast with the white honeycomb grill of the upper levels it supports.

After studying the main diplomatic congress halls at the UN, State Department, the OAS and elsewhere, Fresnedo Siri devised a “floating seat” solution for the chairs in the PAHO’s hall. The seats are all anchored to the floor in the rear to curved latitudinal support elements running behind each row (and serving as hidden conduits for the simultaneous translation cabling), achieving what he described as “a great functional and aesthetic purity.” All of the furnishings for the main halls and meeting rooms were designed under his specifications by Knoll Associates, a leading New York-based producer of modernist furniture including landmark designs of the era like the Saarinen womb chair and Mies Van de Rohe’s Barcelona chair. Fresnedo Siri designed the magisterial backdrop to the presidium of the Congress hall, using vertical slats of six different kinds of wood including Honduran mahogany, Brazilian jacaranda, American walnut and oak, arranged in his words “to accentuate the dimension of the space and the importance of the function it served.” Fresnedo Siri also designed the central chandelier of the Congress hall, calling the piece “a sculpture in light.” Measuring 20 feet in diameter and weighing 16,000 pounds (7,300 kg), it consisted of 3000 long rectangular pieces of Lucite, the translucent acrylic resin invented by Dupont in the 1930s for industrial and military uses then enjoying an early-60’s boom as a “space age” material for vanguard furniture and art.

What is the National Alliance on Mental Illness?

Introduction

The National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) is a United States-based advocacy group originally founded as a grassroots group by family members of people diagnosed with mental illness.

NAMI identifies its mission as “providing advocacy, education, support and public awareness so that all individuals and families affected by mental illness can build better lives” and its vision as “a world where all people affected by mental illness live healthy, fulfilling lives supported by a community that cares”. NAMI offers classes and trainings for people living with mental illnesses, their families, community members, and professionals, including what is termed psychoeducation, or education about mental illness. NAMI holds regular events which combine fundraising for the organization and education, including Mental Illness Awareness Week and NAMIWalks.

Headquartered in Arlington, Virginia, NAMI has around 1,000 state and local affiliates and is represented in all 50 US states, Washington, D.C., and Puerto Rico. NAMI is funded primarily through pharmaceutical company donations. Additional funding comes from individual donors, as well as sponsorships and grants. NAMI publishes a magazine around twice a year called The Advocate. NAMI also runs a HelpLine five days a week, which is funded in part by pharmaceutical companies Janssen and Lundbeck.

Brief History

NAMI was founded in Madison, Wisconsin, by Harriet Shetler and Beverly Young. The two women both had sons diagnosed with schizophrenia, and “were tired of being blamed for their sons’ mental illness”. Unhappy with the lack of services available and the treatment of those living with mental illness, the women sought out others with similar concerns. The first meeting held to address these issues in mental health led to the formation of the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill in 1979. In 1997, the legal name was changed to the acronym NAMI by a vote of the membership due to concerns that the name National Alliance for the Mentally Ill did not use person-first language. In 2005, the meaning of NAMI was changed to the backronym National Alliance on Mental Illness.

Mission

NAMI identifies its mission as to promote recovery by preserving and strengthening family relationships “affected by mental illness”. NAMI’s programmes and services include education, support groups, informational publications, and presentations. Although originally focused primarily on family members, in more recent years NAMI has moved toward trying to include people diagnosed with mental illness as well (although activists have criticised these efforts). In addition, NAMI has a strong focus on discriminatory attitudes and behaviours about mental illness (what they term stigma); another identified goal is “to increase public and professional understanding”, and “to improve the mental health system”.

Structure

The National Alliance on Mental Illness is a 501(c)(3) non-profit run by a board of directors who are elected by membership. NAMI National is the umbrella organisation; state and local affiliates operate semi-independently, in an attempt to more accurately represent those in the surrounding communities. Since 2015, NAMI has been using a four-year strategic plan which expires in 2019.

The national chief executive officer from 2014-2019 was Mary Giliberti, who resigned on 24 April 2019. She was immediately preceded by Michael Fitzpatrick. Gilberti, who has a law degree from Yale University and clerked for Judge Phyllis A. Kravitch. Before coming to NAMI, Giliberti worked as a senior attorney at Bazelon Centre for Mental Health Law for almost ten years and the Senate Health, Education, Labour, and Pensions Committee from 2008 to 2014. She worked for NAMI National during this time as the director of public policy and advocacy for federal and state issues. In 2017, she was “appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Service (HHS) to serve as one of 14 non-federal members of HHS’ Interdepartmental Serious Mental Illness Coordinating Committee.”

National and state NAMI organisations function to provide Governance, Public Education, Political Advocacy, and management of NAMI’s Educational Programmes. At the local level, the local NAMI chapters also provide assistance in obtaining mental health resources, scheduling and administration of NAMI’s programmes, and hosting local meetings and events for NAMI members.

In February 2020, NAMI Sioux Falls has merged with the South Dakota Office. The move was a result of a decision by the national NAMI office.

Partnerships

In 2017, NAMI partnered with Alpha Kappa Alpha (since 2015), Instagram, tumblr, Women’s Health, Fox Sports, Stanley Centre for Psychiatric Research at Broad Institute, Jack and Jill of America, The Jed Foundation, and Lokai. Celebrity partnerships included Utkarsh Ambudkar, Maria Bamford, Andrea Barber, AJ Brooks, Sterling K. Brown, Corinne Foxx, Naomi Judd, Dawn McCoy, Stefania Owen, Alessandra Torresani, Wil Wheaton, DeWanda Wise, and Chris Wood.

Philosophy and Positions

NAMI generally endorses a medical model approach to mental illnesses, and previously was a major proponent of terming them “serious brain disorders” during the “decade of the brain”. NAMI endorses the term anosognosia, or “that someone is unaware of their own mental health condition or that they can’t perceive their condition accurately”. While NAMI previously referred to mental illnesses as “serious brain disorders”, current advice on their “How we talk about NAMI” page recommends against this language.

Programmes

NAMI programmes are generally in the area of support and education for individuals and families, often for no cost. The programmes are set up through local NAMI Affiliate organisations, with different programmes varying in their targeted audience.

NAMI Family-to-Family

The NAMI Family-to-Family Education Programme is a free eight-week course targeted toward family and friends of individuals with mental illness, providing education from a medical model perspective of mental illness. Originally offered as a twelve-week programme, but updated to a shorter model in 2020, the courses are taught by a NAMI-trained family member of a person diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder. Family-to-Family is taught in 44 states, and two provinces in Canada. The programme was developed by clinical psychologist Joyce Burland. Facilitators are required to teach material from the curriculum without alteration.

Purpose

The Family-to-Family programme provides general information about mental illness and how it is currently treated from a medical model perspective. The programmes cover mental illnesses including schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, etc., as well as the indications and side effects of medications. Family-to-Family takes a biologically-based approach to explaining mental illness and its treatments.

According to the NAMI website, Family-to-Family programme states its goals as teaching coping and advocacy skills, providing mutual support, how to “handle a crisis”, “information on mental health conditions and how they affect the brain”, and locating resources in the community

Evidence Base

The NAMI Family-to-Family programme has initial research evidence; one randomised clinical trial showed gains in empowerment, increases in problem solving and reductions in participant anxiety scores following the class; these changes persisted at 6 month follow up. These studies confirm an earlier finding that Family-to-Family graduates describe a permanent transformation in the understanding and engagement with mental illness in themselves and their family. Because a randomized controlled trial is at risk of poor external validity by mechanism of self-selection, Dixon and colleges sought out to strengthen the evidence base by confirming the benefits attributed to Family-to-Family with a subset of individuals who declined participation during initial studies.

The NAMI Family-to-Family programme was found to increase self efficacy in family members involved in caring for a family member with schizophrenia while reducing subjective burden and need for information. In light of recent research, Family-to-Family was added to the SAMHSA National Registry of Evidence-Based Programmes and Practices (NREPP), although as of January 2018 this database and designation has been eliminated by SAMHSA.

NAMI Peer-to-Peer

The NAMI Peer-to-Peer is an eight-week educational programme aimed at adults diagnosed with a mental illness. The NAMI Peer-to-Peer programme describes the course as a holistic approach to recovery through lectures, discussions, interactive exercises, and teaching stress management techniques. The programme provides information about biological explanations of mental illness, symptoms, and personal experiences. The programme also includes information about interacting with healthcare providers as well as decision making and stress reducing skills. The Peer-to-Peer philosophy is advertised as being centred around certain values such as individuality, autonomy, and unconditional positive regard. The programme is also available in Spanish.

Preliminary studies have suggested Peer-to-Peer provided many of its purported benefits (e.g. self-empowerment, disorder management, confidence). Peer interventions in general have been studied more extensively, having been found to increase social adjustment.

NAMI In Our Own Voice

The NAMI In Our Own Voice (IOOV) programme started as a mental health consumer education program for people living with schizophrenia in 1996, and was further developed to IOOV with grant funding from Eli Lily & Co. in 2002. The programme was based on the idea that those successfully living with mental illness were experts in a sense, and sharing their stories would benefit those with similar struggles. The programme approached this by relaying the idea that recovery is possible, attempting to build confidence and self-esteem. Because of the initial success of the programme and positive reception, IOOV also took on the role of public advocacy.

NAMI In Our Own Voice involves two trained speakers presenting personal experiences related to mental illness, in front of an audience. Unlike the majority of NAMI’s programmes, IOOV consists of a single presentation educating groups of individuals with the acknowledgement many are likely unfamiliar with mental illness. The programme’s aims include raising awareness regarding NAMI and mental illness in general, addressing stigma, and empowering those affected by mental illness. Other than those directly affected by mental illness, In Our Own Voice often educates groups of individuals like law enforcement, politicians, and students.

In Our Own Voice has been shown to be superior at reducing self stigmatisation of families when compared to clinician led education. Research into the effectiveness of the NAMI In Our Own Voice programme has shown the programme also can be of benefit to Graduate level therapists and adolescents. A 2016 study evaluating IOOV in California found significant reductions in desire for social distancing after attending an IOOV presentation, although no validated measures were used in the evaluation.

NAMI Basics

The NAMI Basics Programme is a six-session course for parents or other primary caregivers of children and adolescents living with mental illness. NAMI Basics is conceptually similar to NAMI Family-to-Family in that it aims to educate families, but recognises providing care for a child living with mental illness presents unique challenges in parenting, and that mental illness in children typically manifest differently than in adults. Because of the development of the brain and nervous system throughout childhood and adolescence, information regarding mental illness biology and its presentation is fundamentally different from with adults. The NAMI Basics programme has a relatively short time course to accommodate parents’ difficulty in attending because of their caregiver status.

NAMI Connection

The NAMI Connection Recovery Support Group Programme is a weekly support group for adults living with mental illness. The programme is for adults 18+ diagnosed with mental illness and groups are usually weekly for 90 minutes. The support groups are led by trained facilitators who identify as having experienced mental illness themselves.

NAMI On Campus

NAMI On Campus is an initiative for university students to start NAMI On Campus organisations within their respective universities. NAMI On Campus was started to address the mental health issues of college-aged students. Adolescence and early adulthood are periods where the onset of mental illness is common, with 75% of mental illnesses beginning by age 24. When asked what barriers, if any, prevented them from gaining support and treatment, surveys found stigma to be the number one barrier.

Ending the Silence

This 50-minute or one hour programme is available for students, school staff, and family members. It involves two presenters: one who shares educational information and one who is a young adult living well in recovery who shares their personal story. This programme has been shown to improve the mental health knowledge of middle- and high school students.

In 2017, Former Second Lady of the United States Tipper Gore gave a $1 million donation to the Ending the Silence programme.

Funding

NAMI receives funding from both private and public sources, including corporations, federal agencies, foundations and individuals. NAMI maintains that it is committed to avoiding conflicts of interest and does not endorse nor support any specific service or treatment. Records of NAMI’s quarterly grants and contributions since 2009 are freely available on its website.

In 2017, NAMI had a 16% increase in overall revenue.

NAMIWalks

The 2017 annual report noted “$11.3 million raised across the country by 68,000 participants.”

Criticism

The funding of NAMI by multiple pharmaceutical companies was reported by the investigative magazine Mother Jones in 1999, including that an Eli Lilly & Company executive was then “on loan” to NAMI working out of NAMI headquarters.

During a 2009 investigation into the drug industry’s influence on the practice of medicine, US Senator Chuck Grassley (R-IA) sent letters to NAMI and about a dozen other influential disease and patient advocacy organisations asking about their ties to drug and device makers. The investigation confirmed pharmaceutical companies provided a majority of NAMI’s funding, a finding which led to NAMI releasing documents listing donations over $5,000.

Dr. Peter Breggin refers to NAMI as an “AstroTurf lobbying organisation” of the “psychopharmaceutical complex”.

What is the International Society for Bipolar Disorders?

Introduction

The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) is a non-profit organisation based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where it was founded 17 June 1999. The society focuses on research and education in bipolar disorders.

The society has a membership consisting of mental health professionals and patients and their family members representing 50 countries. The mission of the society is to advance the treatment of all aspects of bipolar disorder, thereby improving patient outcomes and quality of life, through fostering international collaboration in education and research. The society hosts biennial professional meetings and offers educational programmes. The official journal of the society is Bipolar Disorders and a subscription is included with membership.

Brief History

The ISBD was founded at the 3rd International Conference on Bipolar Disorder, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in June 1999 by David J. Kupfer and Thomas Detre (University of Pittsburgh Medical Centre). In September 1999, the official peer-reviewed society journal, Bipolar Disorders, published its first issue.

The ISBD held its first meeting in Sydney, Australia, in February 2004 with over 400 participants in attendance. The society held its second meeting in August 2006 in Edinburgh, Scotland, with over 600 attendees. As of 2013, the society has over 800 members in 50 countries with an elected board representing 15 countries.

Educational Programmes

The society supports the following educational initiatives:

  • The Psychiatric Trainee Support programme:
    • Offers psychiatric trainees a free two-year membership in the society in order to enhance knowledge of bipolar disorder among this group, narrow the gap between bipolar research and clinical practice, and ultimately to improve diagnosis, treatment and outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder.
    • These supported memberships are open to psychiatric residents, postgraduate students and junior faculty up to the Assistant Professor or equivalent level with less than five years as faculty in their career trajectory.
    • The programmes seek to support 70% of trainees from developing countries.
  • The Samuel Gershon Awards for Junior Investigators:
    • Named in honour of Samuel Gershon, past ISBD President and pioneer of early lithium research, offer four awards for original research submissions.
    • Awards are based on the originality of the content, as well as the significance of the findings reported, and are evaluated by an international scientific panel under the auspices of the ISBD.
    • These awards are open to psychiatric trainees, postgraduate students and junior faculty up to the assistant professor rank from around the world.
    • The awards are presented in conjunction with the society’s biennial meeting where the winners present their research in a special session showcasing the work of junior people in the field.
  • The ISBD Research Fellowship for Junior Investigators:
    • Provides an opportunity for the recipient to travel to another facility to get training in a particular type of research methodology (i.e. brain imaging, genetics, clinical trials, etc.).
    • The fellowship is intended to cover up to six months support for salary, travel, or some combination of these costs as they are incurred in pursuit of additional training.
    • This could take the form of summer programs, participation in smaller prospective studies, or through some other opportunity.

Conferences

The society organises biennial meetings that provides updates on topics such as epidemiology, pharmacotherapy, psychotherapies, genetics, neurobiology, imaging research, and bipolar disorder in special populations.

What is the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention?

Introduction

The American Foundation for Suicide Prevention (AFSP) is a voluntary health organisation based in New York City, with a public policy office based in Washington, D.C.

The organisation’s stated mission is to “save lives and bring hope to those affected by suicide.”

Refer to Suicide Awareness.

Brief History

Founded in 1987 as the American Suicide Foundation by Herbert Hendin M.D., AFSP is the world’s largest private funder of suicide prevention research. The founding families, alarmed by a combination of increases in death by suicide in the previous four decades and with their personal experience with loved ones dying by suicide, decided to the create AFSP in order to establish a private source of support for suicide research, education, and prevention efforts that could be sustained into the future. According to a Charity Navigator rating published in September 2018, more than 83% of the organisation’s finances went towards programme expenses (based on financial data from fiscal year 2017), receiving a perfect rating for accountability and transparency. AFSP also partners with Aetna (a US managed health care company that sells traditional and consumer directed health care insurance and related services).

For 2018, AFSP received $37 million in financial contributions from 700,000 new and returning donors.

Programmes

Programmes designed to educate the larger public about suicide and prevention best practices, such as Talk Saves Lives: An Introduction to Suicide Prevention, are offered by AFSP under the umbrella of prevention education and provide a general understanding of suicide, including its scope and what can be done to prevent it.

International Survivors of Suicide Loss Day (also known as “Survivor Day”) is one of the most prominent postvention programmes or events organised by AFSP. Originally introduced as “National Survivors of Suicide Loss Day” in 1999, when United States Senator Harry Reid – himself a survivor of suicide loss – formally introduced a resolution to the Senate, the day is officially observed annually on the Saturday before American Thanksgiving.

The Interactive Screening Programme, or ISP, is an online tool offered by AFSP first piloted at Emory University, and has since been implemented in colleges, police departments, workplaces and the NFL Players Union. Francis Levesque created this in Sept-Îles in 1973 in meeting all members of the association.

Criticism

In August 2016, AFSP formed a partnership with the National Shooting Sports Foundation, a gun industry trade association, to educate the firearm-owning community on suicide prevention through outreach at firearm retailers and shooting ranges. In December 2017, The New York Times released an opinion piece written by Erin Dunkerly, a volunteer whose father died by suicide using a firearm. The piece cites that there is a high risk of suicide from keeping firearms in the home, but claims that local AFSP staff told volunteers not to discuss the topic of gun control. The piece goes on to say that AFSP excluded from its walks violence prevention groups that promoted gun control, and that AFSP excludes the Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence from donating or participating. According to a post published on digital health community The Mighty, similar accounts of gun safety groups have been reported in Wisconsin by Khary Penebaker, San Diego by Wendy Wheatcroft, and in Maine by Judi Richardson.

What is the World Health Organisation Collaborating Centre?

Introduction

World Health Organisation collaborating centres are institutions that work with the World Health Organisation (WHO) in disciplines such as occupational health, food safety, and communicable disease prevention.

Overview

There are over 700 such centres across 80 countries. Collaborating centres may be research institutes, parts of universities, or academies. The participating institutions partner with WHO to perform research, provide training, or offer other services in furthering the WHO health agenda. These partners are designated by the WHO director-general as a part of a collaborative network. By using networks of established organisations, WHO is able to strengthen the scientific validity of its work and lower the costs of research.

Centres Worldwide

The WHO has established networks related to a variety of health topics. For example, WHO has put in place centres focused on organ transplants, hearing loss prevention, hepatitis, leprosy, medical ethics, and maternal health. To move the work forward, WHO has numerous designated centres in each inhabited continent. The network of centres for reference and research on influenza draws upon resources from Japan, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. The network of WHO collaborating centres in occupational health is chaired by Dr. John Howard, director of the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and contains more than 60 designated organisations from across the globe.

The WHO Collaborating Centre on Global Governance of Antimicrobial Resistance has been working on the Coronavirus disease 2019 and is directed by Steven Hoffman.

What is the Chinese Society of Psychiatry?

Introduction

The Chinese Society of Psychiatry (CSP; Chinese: 中华医学会精神病学分会; lit. ‘Chinese Medical Association Psychiatry Branch’) is the largest organisation for psychiatrists in China.

It publishes the Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders (“CCMD”), first published in 1985. The CSP also publishes clinical practice guidelines; promotes psychiatric practice, research and communication; trains new professionals; and holds academic conferences.

Origins and Organisation

The organisation developed out of the Chinese Society of Neuro-Psychiatry, which was founded in 1951. This separated into the Chinese Society of Psychiatry and Chinese Society of Neurology in 1994. Since then, successive committees have run the organisation, currently the 3rd Committee, which started in 2003, whose president is Dongfeng Zhou. The CCMD is now on its third revision.

The official journal of the CSP is the Chinese Journal of Psychiatry (中华精神科杂志).[2] The Society held its seventh annual academic conference in 2006. The Society is a member of the World Psychiatric Association.

As of 2005, the CSP had 800 members.

Brief History

In 2001, the CSP declassified homosexuality and bisexuality as a mental disorder. However, the organization specified that, “although homosexuality was not a disease, a person could be conflicted or suffering from mental illness because of their sexuality, and that condition could be treated”, according to Damien Lu, founder of the Information Clearing House for Chinese Gays and Lesbians. Reportedly, this loophole is used to promote conversion therapy in China.

Beginning in 2014, the CSP began collaborating with the McLean Hospital. The purpose of the programme is to share research cross-culturally between specialists in psychotic and mood disorders.

Controversy

The Chinese Society of Psychiatrists (CSP) has been criticised for alleged complicity in the government’s political abuse of psychiatry towards Falun Gong practitioners – including by detaining individuals via diagnosing adherents as “political maniacs” or with “Qi Gong psychosis”. Antipsychotic drugs were wrongly prescribed to practitioners.

In 2004, the CSP agreed on a joint response with the World Psychiatric Association to the allegations. According to the CSP, certain psychiatrists had “failed to distinguish between spiritual-cultural beliefs and delusions” due to “lack of training and professional skills”, and this led to misdiagnoses. However, they claimed this was not a systematic issue and invited the WPA to correct the problem.

The WPA stated, “What has become clear… has been the need to assist Chinese colleagues in matters concerning forensic psychiatry, medical ethics, patients’ rights, mental health legislation, diagnosis and classification, to help them improve the care of mentally ill in China and prevent future abuses.” Arthur Kleinman, a psychiatrist at Harvard University, said he believed the claims about systematic abuse of psychiatry were exaggerated, while acknowledging that it did occur in some cases. Abraham Halpern, a psychiatrist at New York Medical College and board member of the Friends of Falun Gong, USA, criticised the WPA for not demanding an investigative mission in China.

A follow-up review of the controversy was written by Alan A. Stone, a professor of psychiatry and president of the American Psychiatric Association, and published in the Psychiatric Times. Stone determined that psychiatrists in China were generally poorly trained and did not receive the sort of medical training which was standard in the West. Stone said this was cause for the misdiagnoses.

What is the Blackthorn Trust?

Introduction

Blackthorn Trust is a UK charity in Maidstone, Kent which offers specialist therapies and rehabilitation through work placements in the Blackthorn Garden.

They offer help to people with mental health difficulties, chronic pain and type 2 diabetes. The charity’s work is based on the work of Rudolf Steiner (an Austrian philosopher, social reformer), and the charity aims to assist individuals to progress towards their full potential.

Brief History

In 1983, Dr David McGavin was in general practice in Maidstone. Through his work in the local community, he found out that conventional medicine was not able to help patients with chronic illness and were becoming increasingly passive and inactive, which was not helpful for their illness. He then met Hazel Adams (an art therapist) working on anthroposophical principles of Rudolf Steiner. As they worked on few of the Dr McGavin’s most severe patients, several noted improvements were made. More therapists were brought into the small practise but this became impractical. So he decided to set up a new trust and a new medical centre.

Blackthorn Medical Centre

This is owned by the Blackthorn Trust and part of it rented to the Practice. It was built in 1991, designed by Camphill Architects (from the Camphill Movement) and opened in December. As a result of the fundraising and hard work of patients, their families and friends, local and national industry, grant making trusts and the National Health Service. They may be prescribed anthroposophic medication and one of a number of anthroposophic therapies which are available on a one-to-one or group basis. These include biographical counselling, eurythmy therapy, rhythmical massage (developed by Ita Wegman) or art therapy. Therapies are offered at the discretion of the doctor.

It provides the usual family doctor services for around 7,200 people and is a GP training practice. Blackthorn Trust rents its premises via the NHS to the primary care team and the complementary practitioners.

The centre and trust is partially funded by the NHS, but needs to raise an additional £100,000 per year to cover its running costs. This is achieved by grants, donations, bequests and fund raising activities (including selling produce from the garden).

Blackthorn Garden

On the site of the grounds of the former psychiatric hospital of Oakwood Hospital, it occupies 22 acres and is under the direction of the Trust Management Team. Founded in 1991 and funded by the Trust. It has a flower garden, greenhouse and lath house (a framework of treated lumber covered with plastic netting, giving shade and protection for young plants). The lath house is a relic from the mental asylum. There is also a very large vegetable garden, a craft room for art therapy, a Cafe and kitchen serving organic lunches.

The garden has up to 60 people working in the garden per week.

In 1995, the garden and its therapies were evaluated by the Centre for Mental Health.

The aims of the garden:

  • To establish a place of rehabilitation through work for the mentally ill in the community.
  • To create a place of social integration and cultural activity in the Barming District of Maidstone.
  • To encourage the meeting and working together of the various disciplines concerned with mental health and community care.

The garden is opened, Monday to Saturday, 9:30 am to 3:30 pm. On Saturdays, workshops are open to the general public.

The garden also has a shop (run by volunteers) selling second-hand clothes and other used items.

The trust has various events during the year including Spring Fair, Summer Fair, Christmas Fairs. Selling local handmade crafts and specialist food stalls as well as the traditional stalls.

Funders

The local community and the people of Kent, Abbey National Trust, Alchemy Trust, Aylesford Samaritan Benevolent Fund, Big Lottery Fund, Esmée Fairbairn Foundation, European Social Fund, The Hambland Foundation, Hayward Foundation, Interreg IIIa, Smith’s Charity, Invicta Community Care NHS Trust, Kent Social Services, Kimberly Clark PLC, Lankelly Chase, Lloyds TSB PLC, Mental Health Foundation, The Percy Bilton Charity, The Pilgrim Trust, Rochester Bridge Trust, Smith Kline Beecham PLC, South East Regional Health Authority, Tudor Trust, West Kent Health Authority and Wimpy PLC.

Awards

  • Leisure and Outdoor Furniture Association (LOFA) Charity Award 1999.
  • NHS Beacon Training Practise 1999/2000.
  • Joint Winner HRH Prince of Wales Award for ‘Good Practice in Integrated Health’ 2001 and 2002.
  • Finalist in 2003 NHS Health & Social Care Awards, patient-centred cancer care section.
  • Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP)/ Leonard Cheshire / RCGP 2009 Disability Care Award.

Visits

  • Julia Cumberlege, Baroness Cumberlege Minister of Health (1992-1997) for the House of Lords.
  • Nigel Crisp Chief Executive NHS (2000-2006).
  • Jonathan Shaw (politician) Labour Minister for Disabilities in Department for Work and Pensions (2008-2010), in 2012 after losing his seat he has now become a Blackthorn Trust Member.
  • Charles, Prince of Wales.

What is the Centre for Mental Health (UK)?

Introduction

The Centre for Mental Health is an independent UK mental health charity. It aims to inspire hope, opportunity and a fair chance in life for people of all ages with or at risk of mental ill health.

The Centre acts as a bridge between the worlds of research, policy and service provision and believes strongly in the importance of high-quality evidence and analysis. It encourages innovation and advocates for change in policy and practice through focused research, development and training.

Brief History

The Centre for Mental Health began in March 1985 as the National Unit for Psychiatric Research and Development (NUPRD). It was founded by the Gatsby Charitable Foundation, an independent grant-making trust set up by Lord Sainsbury of Turville to ‘advance education and learning in the science and practise of mental health care, to promote research into mental health and publish the useful results and to assist the provision of mental health care for those in need of it’. The aim was for NUPRD to tackle these issues by working in a different way to other organisations. NUPRD was initially staffed by a small group of people working in an office at Lewisham Hospital. After 1989, it was renamed the Research and Development for Psychiatry (RDP), moving into the current offices on Borough High Street.

RDP eventually became the ‘Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health’ in February 1992. It was at the centre of developing and helping to implement the National Service Framework for Mental Health, and in 1995, evaluated the Blackthorn Trust garden (in Maidstone, Kent) and its therapies for two years.

From 2006, the Centre changed its work to focus on mental health and employment, in which it already had an established programme, as well as a new area of work on mental health and the criminal justice system. A new look and logo were subsequently introduced in 2007 to accompany this change in focus.

The Gatsby Charitable Foundation, one of the Sainsbury Family Charitable Trusts, provided the Centre’s core funding each year from 1985 until 2009, when it announced that it would begin to spend out its funds, its annual grant to the Centre ceasing the following year. A final grant covering three years was then announced by the foundation in the summer of 2010. The charity has since been known as the Centre of Mental Health.

Focus

  • Criminal justice: Identifies effective methods of supporting and diverting people with mental health problems in the criminal justice system.
  • Employment: Develops and promotes new ways of helping people with mental health problems get and keep work.
  • Recovery: Helps mental health services across the UK to support people more effectively to make their own lives better on their own terms.
  • Children: Undertakes work which aims to improve the life chances of children through the support they need early in life.
  • Mental and Physical Health: Recognises the strong association between mental and physical ill health and works with partners to review the evidence on cost of co-morbidities, as well as carrying out related research on liaison psychiatry.
  • Workplace training: Train managers and staff to understand, identify and support people with depression and anxiety at work.

What is Turning Point (Charity)?

Introduction

Turning Point is a health and social care organisation that works across mental health, learning disability, substance misuse, primary care, the criminal justice system and employment.

In 2017, Turning Point won the contract to deliver sexual health services across 3 London boroughs and Autism Plus joined the Turning Point group. Many of Turning Point services are regulated by the Care Quality Commission.

Brief History

Turning Point developed out of The Camberwell Alcohol Project in South East London and was founded by Barry Richards, a London businessman, in 1964.

The charity was described as “one of Princess Diana’s favourite charities”; she acted as its patron from 1985 to 1997.

In 2001, Lord Victor Adebowale became Chief Executive.

In 2015 the charity denied accusations of “black on black racism” in its appeal against the decision of an earlier employment tribunal that Adebowale had unfairly dismissed the charity’s IT director, Ibukun Adebayo. The tribunal did find that Adebayo’s actions in accessing lewd emails about her from the charity’s deputy chief executive to Adebowale, constituted gross misconduct, but ruled that this did not justify Adebowale’s actions. Adebayo’s lawyers said that the actions were unfair because the deputy chief executive’s behaviour “was more serious than the claimant’s by way of his seniority and position as sponsor of Turning Point’s equal opportunities policy.”

Organisation

Turning Point is a social enterprise and registered charity based in the United Kingdom that runs projects in more than 240 locations across England and Wales, making contact with 130,000 people, on average, each year. In addition to providing direct services, Turning Point also campaigns on behalf of those with social care needs.

It has a turnover of £111m, £60m of which is for the delivery of substance misuse services, £18m for the delivery of mental health services and £34m for the delivery of support to people with a Learning Disability.

The organisation provides services support for a range of people, including those with mental health issues, learning disabilities and/or substance-related disorders.