Research Paper Title
Prevalence and risk factors of perinatal depression among women in rural Bihar: A community-based cross-sectional study.
Perinatal depression (PND) is one of the most common mental disorders occurring during the perinatal period among women. Few studies examined prevalence and risk factors of PND from rural settings in India. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of perinatal depression and identify social risk factors for it among women from rural Bihar.
A cross sectional study was conducted in a community setting in rural areas of Bihar. All perinatal women were screened through a door to door survey and recruited after obtaining informed consent. A semi-structured proforma was used to collect sociodemographic characteristics and family related variables. Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) was used to screen for perinatal depression.
A total of 564 perinatal women were recruited into the study. The estimated prevalence of PND was 23.9 % (95 % CI: 20.6,27.6). Multivariate analysis showed perinatal depression was associated with physical illness in the mother, previous history of abortion, poor financial status and ill-treatment by in-laws.
Prevalence of perinatal depression among women is high in rural settings of North India. A multitude of factors ranging from physical, obstetric, economic and family related confer a high risk for PND. Comprehensive interventions are needed to address these risk factors of perinatal depression.
Raghavan, V., Khan, H.A., Seshu, U., Rai, S.P., Durairaj, J., Aarthi, G., Sangeetha, C., John, S. & Thara, R. (2021) Prevalence and risk factors of perinatal depression among women in rural Bihar: A community-based cross-sectional study. Asian Journal of Psychiatry. doi: 10.1016/j.ajp.2021.102552. Online ahead of print.
Research Paper Title
Paternal Mental Health During the Perinatal Period: A Qualitative Systematic Review.
To examine fathers’ experiences and needs associated with mental health during the perinatal period.
Qualitative studies were meta-synthesised using the steps outlined by Sandelowski and Barroso.
Six databases (PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Scopus and ProQuest) were searched for qualitative studies from each database’s inception to 24 June 2019.
Studies were critically appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Qualitative data were extracted, meta-summarised, then meta-synthesised.
Fourteen studies were included and four themes were identified:
- Negative feelings and psychological difficulties;
- Role strain and role conflict with multiple sources;
- Coping strategies that buffered negative feelings and psychological difficulties; and
- Support needs to enhance mental health.
Fathers reported poor mental health and expressed needs to enhance their mental health across the perinatal period. Future studies can focus specifically on paternal mental health. The development of theory-guided, family inclusive, technology-based healthcare services are needed to manage mental health. Healthcare providers can promote positive mental health to prepare fathers, increasing their awareness to manage their mental health and to seek timely help.
Problem-focused coping (i.e. support and problem-solving with partners and childcare involvement) helped fathers to buffer their negative feelings and psychological difficulties. Future studies should focus on paternal mental health rather than on general fathering experiences. Healthcare providers should focus on promoting positive mental health and well-being. Policymakers should create awareness on paternal mental health across the perinatal period.
Shorey, S. & Chan. V. (2020) Paternal Mental Health During the Perinatal Period: A Qualitative Systematic Review. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 76(6), pp.1307-1319. doi: 10.1111/jan.14325. Epub 2020 Feb 25.
Research Paper Title
Psychosocial Stress and Adversity: Effects from the Perinatal Period to Adulthood.
Early exposure to stress and adversity can have both immediate and lasting effects on physical and psychological health.
Critical periods have been identified in infancy, during which the presence or absence of experiences can alter developmental trajectories.
There are multiple explanations for how exposure to psychosocial stress, before conception or early in life, has an impact on later increased risk for developmental delays, mental health, and chronic metabolic diseases.
Through both epidemiologic and animal models, the mechanisms by which experiences are transmitted across generations are being identified.
Because psychosocial stress has multiple components that can act as stress mediators, a comprehensive understanding of the complex interactions between multiple adverse or beneficial experiences and their ultimate effects on health is essential to best identify interventions that will improve health and outcomes.
This review outlines what is known about the biology, transfer, and effects of psychosocial stress and early life adversity from the perinatal period to adulthood.
This information can be used to identify potential areas in which clinicians in neonatal medicine could intervene to improve outcomes.
Barrero-Castillero, A., Morton, S.U., Nelson, C.A. & Smith, V.C. (2019) Psychosocial Stress and Adversity: Effects from the Perinatal Period to Adulthood. NeoReviews. 20(12):e686-e696. doi: 10.1542/neo.20-12-e686.