Book: Working Effectively with ‘Personality Disorder’

Book Title:

Working Effectively with ‘Personality Disorder’: Contemporary and Critical Approaches to Clinical and Organisational Practice.

Author(s): Joanne Ramsden (Author and Editor), Sharon Prince (Editor), and Julia Blazdell (Editor).

Year: 2020.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Luminate.

Type(s): Paperback and Kindle.

Synopsis:

The history of personality disorder services is problematic to say the least. The very concept is under heavy fire, services are often expensive and ineffective, and many service users report feeling that they have been deceived, stigmatised or excluded. Yet while there are inevitably serious (and often destructive) relational challenges involved in the work, creative networks of learning do exist – professionals who are striving to provide progressive, compassionate services for and with this client group.

Working Effectively with Personality Disorder shares this knowledge, articulating an alternative way of working that acknowledges the contemporary debate around diagnosis, reveals flawed assumptions underlying current approaches, and argues for services that work more positively, more holistically and with a wider and more socially focused agenda.

Table of Contents

  • Foreword by John Livesley.
  • Introduction (Jo Ramsden, Sharon Prince and Julia Blazdell).
  • PART 1: CONTEMPORARY AND CRITICAL PERSPECTIVES ON PERSONALITY DISORDER:
    • Chapter 1: Life and Labels: Some Personal Thoughts about Personality Disorder (Sue Sibbald).
    • Chapter 2: Personality Disorder: Breakdown in the Relational Field (Nick Benefield & Rex Haigh).
    • Chapter 3: The Scale of the Problem (Sarah Skett & Kimberley Barlow).
    • Chapter 4: The Politics of Personality Disorder A Critical Realist Account (David Pilgrim).
    • Chapter 5: The Importance of Personal Meaning (Sharon Prince & Sue Ellis).
    • Chapter 6: The Organisation and Its Discontents: In Search of the Fallible and Good Enough Care Enterprise (Jina Barrett).
  • PART 2: GOVERNANCE PRINCIPLES SUPPORTING SERVICES TO ENACT CONTEMPORARY AND CRITICAL PERSPECTIVES:
    • Chapter 7: Access to Services – Moving beyond Specialist Provision while Applying the Learning (Jo Ramsden).
    • Chapter 8: Reimagining Interventions (Alan Hirons & Ruth Sutherland).
    • Chapter 9: Service User Involvement and Co-production in Personality Disorder Services An Invitation to Transcend Re Traumatising Power Politics (Melanie Ann Ball).
    • Chapter 10: Partnership Working (David Harvey & Bernie Tuohy).
    • Chapter 11: Outcomes (Mary McMurran).
    • Chapter 12: Contained and Containing Teams (Jo Ramsden).
    • Chapter 13: Co-Produced Practice Near Learning: Developing Critically Reflective Relational Systems (Neil Gordon).

Book: Psychopathy: An Introduction to Biological Findings and Their Implications

Book Title:

Psychopathy: An Introduction to Biological Findings and Their Implications.

Author(s): Andrea L. Glenn and Adrian Raine.

Year: 2014.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: NYU Press.

Type(s): Hardcover, Paperback, and Kindle.

Synopsis:

The last two decades have seen tremendous growth in biological research on psychopathy, a mental disorder distinguished by traits including a lack of empathy or emotional response, egocentricity, impulsivity, and stimulation seeking. But how does a psychopath’s brain work? What makes a psychopath?

Psychopathy provides a concise, non-technical overview of the research in the areas of genetics, hormones, brain imaging, neuropsychology, environmental influences, and more, focusing on explaining what we currently know about the biological foundations for this disorder and offering insights into prediction, intervention, and prevention. It also offers a nuanced discussion of the ethical and legal implications associated with biological research on psychopathy. How much of this disorder is biologically based? Should offenders with psychopathic traits be punished for their crimes if we can show that biological factors contribute? The text clearly assesses the conclusions that can and cannot be drawn from existing biological research, and highlights the pressing considerations this research demands.

Book: Handbook of Psychopathy

Book Title:

Handbook of Psychopathy.

Author(s): Christopher J. Patrick (Editor).

Year: 2018.

Edition: Second (2nd).

Publisher: Guildford Press.

Type(s): Hardcover, Paperback, and Kindle.

Synopsis:

Widely considered the go-to reference – and now extensively revised with over 65% new material – this authoritative handbook surveys the landscape of current knowledge on psychopathy and addresses essential clinical and applied topics. Leading researchers explore major theoretical models; symptomatology and diagnostic subtypes; assessment methods; developmental pathways; and causal influences, from genes and neurobiology to environmental factors. The volume examines manifestations of psychopathy in specific populations as well as connections to antisocial behaviour and recidivism. It presents contemporary perspectives on prevention and treatment and discusses special considerations in clinical and forensic practice.

New to This Edition

  • Extensively revised with more than a decade’s theoretical, empirical, and clinical advances.
  • Many new authors and topics.
  • Expanded coverage of phenotypic facets, with chapters on behavioural disinhibition, callous–unemotional traits, and boldness.
  • Chapters on DSM-5, clinical interviewing, cognitive and emotional processing, and serial murder.
  • Significantly updated coverage of aetiology, assessment methods, neuroimaging research, and adult and juvenile treatment approaches.

Book: Psychopathy – A Very Short Introduction

Book Title:

Psychopathy – A Very Short Introduction.

Author(s): Essi Viding.

Year: 2019.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: OUP Oxford.

Type(s): Paperback, Audiobook, and Kindle.

Synopsis:

Psychopathy is a personality disorder that has long captured the public imagination. Newspaper column inches have been devoted to murderers with psychopathic features, and we also encounter psychopaths in films and books. Individuals with psychopathy are characterised in particular by lack of empathy and guilt, manipulation of other people and, in the case of criminal psychopathy, premeditated violent behaviour. They are dangerous and can incur immeasurable emotional, psychological, physical, and financial costs to their victims and their families. Despite the public fascination with psychopathy, there is often a very limited understanding of the condition, and several myths about psychopathy abound. For example, people commonly assume that all psychopaths are sadistic serial killers or that all violent and antisocial individuals are psychopaths. Yet, research shows that most psychopaths are not serial killers, and, equally, there are plenty of antisocial and violent offenders who are not psychopaths. This Very Short Introduction gives an overview of how we can identify individuals with or at risk of developing psychopathy, and how they differ from other people who display antisocial behaviour. Essi Viding also explores the latest genetic, neuroscience, and psychology evidence in order to illuminate why psychopaths behave and develop the way they do, and considers whether it is possible to prevent or even treat psychopathy.

Sybil (2007)

Introduction

Sybil is a 2007 American made-for-television drama film directed by Joseph Sargent, and written by John Pielmeier, based on the 1973 book Sybil by Flora Rheta Schreiber, which fictionalised the story of Shirley Ardell Mason, who was diagnosed with multiple personality disorder (more commonly known then as “split personality”, now called dissociative identity disorder).

This is the second adaptation of the book, following the Emmy Award-winning 1976 mini-series Sybil that was broadcast by NBC.

Outline

Troubled Columbia University art student and later student teacher Sybil Dorsett is referred to psychiatrist Cornelia Wilbur by Dr. Atcheson, a colleague who believes that the young woman is suffering from female hysteria. As her treatment progresses, Sybil confesses that she frequently experiences blackouts and cannot account for large blocks of time. Wilbur helps her recall a childhood in which she suffered physical, emotional, and sexual abuse at the hands of her disturbed mother Hattie.

Eventually, 16 identities varying in age and personal traits begin to emerge. Chief among them is Victoria, a French woman who explains to Dr. Wilbur how she shepherds the many parts of Sybil’s whole. Frustrating the therapist are objections raised by her associates, who suspect she has influenced her patient into creating her other selves, and Sybil’s father, who refuses to admit his late wife was anything other than a loving mother.

Although she had promised never to hypnotize Sybil, later into the treatment, Dr. Wilbur takes her patient to her home by a lake and hypnotizes her into having all 16 personalities be the same age as she and become just aspects of Sybil. By nightfall, Sybil claims she feels different, and emotionally declares her hatred toward her mother.

The last part of the movie tells of the history of Shirley Mason, the real woman who was known by the pseudonym of Sybil Dorsett.

Cast

  • Jessica Lange ….. Dr. Cornelia Wilbur.
  • Tammy Blanchard ….. Sybil Dorsett.
  • Eddie Ruiz ….. Dr. Ladysman.
  • JoBeth Williams … Hattie Dorsett.

Trivia

  • The university scenes were filmed at Dalhousie University in Nova Scotia.
  • In January 2006, The Hollywood Reporter announced CBS had greenlit the project, but it was shelved after completion.
  • The film was released in Italy, New Zealand, the Dominican Republic, Brazil, Norway, and Hungary before finally being broadcast in the US by CBS on 07 June 2008.

Production & Filming Details

  • Director(s): Joseph Sargent.
  • Producer(s):
    • Andrea Lapins … associate producer.
    • Michael Mahoney … producer.
    • Norman Stephens … executive producer.
    • Mark Wolper … executive producer.
  • Writer(s): John Pielmeier.
  • Music: Charles Bernstein.
  • Cinematography: Donald M. Morgan.
  • Editor(s): Michael Brown (as Mike Brown).
  • Production:
    • Norman Stephens Productions.
    • Warner Bros. Television.
    • Wolper Organisation.
  • Distributor(s): CBS (original airing, US).
  • Release Date: 28 May 2007 (Italy).
  • Running Time: 89 minutes.
  • Rating: Unknown.
  • Country: US.
  • Language: English.

Video Link

Sybil (1976)

Introduction

Sybil is a 1976 two-part, ​3 1⁄4-hour American television film starring Sally Field and Joanne Woodward.

It is based on the book of the same name, and was broadcast on NBC on 14-15 November 1976.

Refer to On This Day … 25 January for information Shirley Ardell Mason, whom Sybil is based on (2007 film version).

Outline

After suffering a small breakdown in front of her students (and then being forced to hear a neighbour play Chopin’s Étude in A Minor, “Winter Wind”, incessantly), Sybil Dorsett is given a neurological examination by Dr. Cornelia Wilbur, a psychiatrist. She admits to having blackouts and fears that are getting worse. Dr. Wilbur theorises that the incidents are a kind of hysteria, all related to a deeper problem. She asks Sybil to return at a later date for more counselling. Sybil says she will have to ask her father.

Sybil’s father, Willard Dorsett, and her stepmother, Freida, are in New York on a visit. Sybil meets them at a cafeteria for lunch. She explains to her father that the problems she used to have as a young girl have returned and that she wants to see a psychiatrist, Dr. Wilbur. Sybil’s parents make it clear to Sybil that they disapprove of psychiatrists and psychiatry, saying how evil and controlling psychiatrists are. Sybil becomes upset and dissociates into Peggy, who becomes enraged and breaks a glass. Peggy angrily storms out of the cafeteria. Later that evening, Dr. Wilbur receives a late night call from someone who identifies herself as Vickie and says Sybil is about to jump out a hotel window. Dr. Wilbur rescues Sybil, who denies knowing Vickie. Suddenly, Sybil becomes hysterical and begins speaking like a young girl. This girl introduces herself as Peggy, and Wilbur realises that Sybil is suffering from dissociative identity disorder, previously known as multiple personality disorder.

Vickie introduces herself to Wilbur at the next session. Vickie, who knows everything about the other personalities, tells Wilbur about some of them, including Marcia, who is suicidal, and Vanessa, who plays the piano although Sybil has not played in years and swears she forgot how to play piano.

Over the weeks, each of the personalities introduce themselves to Wilbur. At the same time, the personality Vanessa falls in love with a charming neighbour named Richard.

Wilbur finally explains to Sybil about the other personalities. As proof, Wilbur plays the session’s tape to allow Sybil to hear their voices, but when a voice that sounds like Sybil’s mother Hattie speaks, an infant personality named Ruthie emerges. Wilbur is unable to communicate with the pre-verbal child and must wait until Sybil returns.

Life becomes more chaotic for Sybil as the other personalities grow stronger. The personalities make Dr. Wilbur a Christmas card, but Sybil made everything purple, a colour that frightens Peggy. Dr. Wilbur hypnotises Vickie and asks about the purple. Vickie relates a memory of a time Sybil’s mother locked young Sybil in the wheat bin in the barn. Thinking she was smothering, Sybil used her purple crayon to scratch on the inside of the bin so someone would know she had been there.

Vanessa invites Richard and his son Matthew to have Christmas dinner, after which Richard spends the night in Sybil’s apartment. Sybil has a nightmare and awakens as Marcia, who tries to throw herself off the roof. Richard rescues her and calls Wilbur. Soon afterwards, Richard moves away, crushing both Sybil and Vanessa. Once again confronted with her diagnosis, Sybil attempts to convince Wilbur that she has in fact been faking all of the other personalities the entire time and denies that multiple personalities exist within her.

Wilbur goes in search of Sybil’s father, who mentions that Sybil’s mother Hattie was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia, but denies that she ever abused Sybil. Wilbur also seeks out Sybil’s paediatrician. The doctor gives Wilbur a frightening account of extensive internal scarring he found while treating Sybil for a bladder problem. Finally, Wilbur visits the old Dorsett house, where she discovers the green kitchen Sybil’s selves have described many times. She also finds the purple crayon scratches inside the wheat bin. She takes them back to New York City to prove all the memories really happened.

Dr. Wilbur takes Sybil for a drive, during which Peggy reveals the horrific physical abuse she suffered at her mother’s hands. After Peggy exhausts herself, Sybil emerges, remembering everything that Peggy has just said. Finally, she is able to express her rage against her mother.

Dr. Wilbur hypnotises Sybil to introduce her to the other personalities. Sybil, who has always been frightened of Peggy, meets her at last and is surprised that she is only a young girl. Sybil embraces a weeping Peggy. A voiceover from Dr. Wilbur explains that after this incident, Sybil recovered her memories and went on to live a full and happy life as an academic.

The “big chair” featured in the film in which the Sybil character felt comfortable provided the name for Tears for Fears hit album Songs From The Big Chair.

Cast

  • Joanne Woodward as Dr. Cornelia Wilbur.
  • Sally Field as Sybil Dorsett.
  • Brad Davis as Richard, Sybil’s neighbour boyfriend.
  • Martine Bartlett as Hattie Dorsett, Sybil’s mother.
  • Penelope Allen as Miss Penny.
  • Jane Hoffman as Frieda Dorsett.
  • Charles Lane as Dr. Quinoness.
  • Jessamine Milner as Grandma Dorsett.
  • William Prince as Willard Dorsett.
  • Camila Ashland as Cam.
  • Tommy Crebbs as Matthew.
  • Gina Petrushka as Dr. Lazarus.
  • Harold Pruett as Danny.
  • Natasha Ryan as Child Sybil.
  • Paul Tulley as Dr. Castle.
  • Anne Beesley as The Selves.
  • Virginia Campbell as The Selves.
  • Missy Karn as The Selves.
  • Tasha Lee as The Selves.
  • Cathy Lynn Lesko as The Selves.
  • Rachel Longaker as The Selves.
  • Jennifer McAllister as The Selves.
  • Kerry Muir as The Selves.
  • Karen Obediear as The Selves.
  • Tony Sherman as The Selves.
  • Danny Stevenson as The Selves.
  • Gordon Jump as Tractor farmer.
  • Lionel Pina as Tommy.

The Alters

  • Peggy: A nine-year-old girl who believes she is still in the small town in which Sybil grew up. Peggy holds the rage Sybil felt at her mother’s abuse and frequently expresses her anger through temper tantrums and breaking glass. Like many of the selves, she enjoys drawing and painting. She fears hands, dishtowels, music, and the colours green and purple, all triggers to specific instances of abuse.
  • Vicky: A very sophisticated and mature eighteen-year-old girl who is aware of all the other personalities and knows everything the others do, though Sybil does not. Vicky speaks French and claims to have grown up in Paris with many brothers and sisters and loving parents. The dominant personality and the only personality to undergo hypnosis.
  • Vanessa: A young, vibrant, red-haired girl about twelve years old, she is outgoing and full of “joie de vivre”. Falls in love with Richard and helps Sybil build a relationship with him, until he moves away.
  • Marcia: A young girl obsessed with thoughts of death and suicide, who tries to kill herself (and thus Sybil) on several occasions. Dresses in black.
  • Ruthie: A preverbal infant. When Sybil is extremely frightened, she regresses into Ruthie and cannot move or speak.
  • Mary: Named for and strongly resembles Sybil’s grandmother. When Sybil’s grandmother (the only person Sybil felt loved her) died, Sybil was so bereft that she created Mary as an internalised version of Grandma. Mary speaks in the voice of an old woman and frequently behaves as one.
  • Nancy: A product of Sybil’s father’s religious fanaticism, Nancy fears the end of the world and God’s punishment.
  • Clara: Around 8-9 years old. Very religious; critical and resentful of Sybil.
  • Helen: Around 13-14 years old. Timid and afraid, but determined “to be somebody”.
  • Marjorie: Around 10-11 years old. Serene and quick to laugh, enjoys parties and travel.
  • Sybil Ann: Around 5-6 years old. Pale, timid, and extremely lethargic; the defeated Sybil.
  • Mike: A brash young boy who likes to build and do carpentry. He builds bookshelves and a partition wall for Sybil’s apartment, frightening her badly when she doesn’t know how they got there. He and Sid both believe that they will grow penes and be able “to give a girl a baby” when they are older.
  • Sid: Younger and a little more taciturn than Mike, he also enjoys building things, as well as sports. Identifies strongly with Sybil’s father and wants to be like him when he grows up.

Production

Sally Field stars in the title role, with Joanne Woodward playing the part of Sybil’s psychiatrist, Cornelia B. Wilbur. Woodward herself had starred in The Three Faces of Eve, in which she portrayed a woman with three personalities, winning the Academy Award for Best Actress for the role. Based on the book Sybil by Flora Rheta Schreiber, the movie dramatises the life of a shy young graduate student, Sybil Dorsett (in real life, Shirley Ardell Mason), suffering from dissociative identity disorder as a result of the psychological trauma she suffered as a child. With the help of her psychiatrist, Sybil gradually recalls the severe child abuse that led to the development of 16 different personalities. Field’s portrayal of Sybil won much critical acclaim, as well as an Emmy Award.

Edited and Unedited Versions

The film, originally 198 minutes long, was initially shown over the course of two nights on NBC in 1976. Due to high public interest, the VHS version of Sybil was released in the 1980s, with one version running 122 minutes and another, extended version running 132 minutes. Several key scenes, including Sybil’s final climactic “introduction” to her other personalities, are missing in both versions. The film is shown frequently on television, often with scenes restored or deleted to adjust for time constraints and the varying sensitivity of viewers. The DVD includes the full 198-minute version originally displayed on the NBC broadcast.

A 128-minute edit of the film was shown in cinemas in Australia, opening in January 1978.

Production & Filming Details

  • Director(s): Daniel Petrie.
  • Producer(s): Philip Capice, Peter Dunne, and Jacqueline Babbin.
  • Writer(s): Stewart Stern.
  • Music: Leonard Rosenman.
  • Cinematography: Mario Tosi.
  • Editor(s): Michael S. McLean and Rita Roland.
  • Production: Lorimar Productions.
  • Distributor(s):
  • Release Date: 14-15 November 1976.
  • Running Time: 198 minutes (original version), 133 minutes (theatrical), and 187 minutes (DVD).
  • Rating: Unknown.
  • Country: US.
  • Language: English.

Video Link

Personality Core of Mental Illness

Research Paper Title

Does it exist a personality core of mental illness? A systematic review on core psychobiological personality traits in mental disorders,

Background

Research investigating the relationship between mental disorders and personality traits leads to interesting results. Individuals affected by several mental disorders have been worldwide assessed according to the psychobiological model of personality. This review aims to explore which temperament and character traits are recurrent in mental disorders and to highlight what traits may be shared determinants or consequences of the expression of a mental disorder.

Methods

Systematic search of Medline database between 1998 and 2011 has been conducted to select the studies exploring the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) dimensions in the most relevant axis I psychiatric disorders. Of the 110 studies that were retrieved, 88 met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were analysed.

Results

High HA (HA) and low self-directedness are recurrent and can be considered as a “personality core” regardless of the diagnosis. They may be risk factors and relapse-related, they can indicate incomplete remission or chronic course of mental disorders, and consistently influence patients’ functioning. Furthermore, they can be modified by medications or psychotherapy and represent outcome predictors of treatments.

Conclusion

This “core” may represent a personality diathesis to psychopathology. Relational environment can influence the development of both temperament and character, thus prevention of mental disorders should promote a positive development of these traits. Although further research is needed, psychotherapeutic interventions should be performed also considering that mental disorders could benefit from HA desensitisation and SD reinforcement. Finally, these traits may be used to provide diagnostic, prognostic, quality of life and efficacy inferences on psychiatric treatments.

Reference

Fassino, S., Amianto, F., Sobrero, C. & Daga, G.A. (2020) Does it exist a personality core of mental illness? A systematic review on core psychobiological personality traits in mental disorders. Panminerva Medica. 55(4), pp.397-413.

Book: Working Effectively with ‘Personality Disorder’

Book Title:

Working Effectively with ‘Personality Disorder’: Contemporary and Critical Approaches to Clinical and Organisational Practice.

Author(s): Jo Ramsden, Sharon Prince, and Julia Blazdell (Editors).

Year: 2020.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Luminate.

Type(s): Paperback and Kindle.

Synopsis:

The history of personality disorder services is problematic to say the least. The very concept is under heavy fire, services are often expensive and ineffective, and many service users report feeling that they have been deceived, stigmatised or excluded. Yet while there are inevitably serious (and often destructive) relational challenges involved in the work, creative networks of learning do exist – professionals who are striving to provide progressive, compassionate services for and with this client group.

Working Effectively with Personality Disorder shares this knowledge, articulating an alternative way of working that acknowledges the contemporary debate around diagnosis, reveals flawed assumptions underlying current approaches, and argues for services that work more positively, more holistically and with a wider and more socially focused agenda.

Book: Psychiatry and Mental Health

Book Title:

Psychiatry and Mental Health: A guide for counsellors and psychotherapists.

Author(s): Rachel Freeth.

Year: 2020.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: PCCS Books.

Type(s): Paperback and Kindle.

Synopsis:

Increasingly, counsellors and psychotherapists are working with people who have been diagnosed with a mental disorder and are required to understand and navigate the mental health system. Counselling training rarely covers the fields of psychiatry and mental disorder in detail and there are few reliable resources on which they can draw.

This comprehensive guide to psychiatry and the mental health system, written by a psychiatrist and counsellor, aims to fill that gap.

The book is intended for counsellors and psychotherapists but will be helpful to others in the mental health field. It explains the organisation and delivery of mental health services in the UK, the theories and concepts underpinning the practice of psychiatry, the medical model of psychiatric diagnosis and treatment, the main forms of mental disorder, how to work therapeutically with people with a diagnosed mental disorder and how to work with risk of suicide and self-harm.

The text is designed to support continuing professional development and training and includes activities, points for learning/discussion and comprehensive references.

Book: Mental Health: Personalities

Book Title:

Mental Health: Personalities: Personality Disorders, Mental Disorders & Psychotic Disorders (Bipolar, Mood Disorders, Mental Illness, Mental Disorders, Narcissist, Histrionic, Borderline Personality).

Author(s): Carol Franklin.

Year: 2015.

Edition: Third (3rd).

Publisher: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

Type(s): Paperback and Kindle.

Synopsis:

At some point in your life you will probably start to think you are losing your mind, or that someone you know is in danger of losing theirs. The truth is that modern life is extremely stressful; there are many demands on your time and never enough hours in the day.

However, being at the end of your tether, worn out and overwhelmed is not the same as having a mental disorder. In fact mental health covers a wide range of illnesses including those which most people are aware of, such as Schizophrenia (which is classed as a psychotic disorder). What you may not be aware of is the number of people who have personality disorders and the reasons for these disorders. Most people are not diagnosed until into their twenties and symptoms will naturally reduce in their forties or fifties.

Knowing the difference between the various mental illnesses is essential to ensure you know when a friend or loved one needs professional help as opposed to just your care and attention. This book will guide you through the differences between personality disorders, mental disorders and psychotic disorders.

It will help you to understand the different elements of a personality and how you can test your friends to find out which personality type they are. It will even enlighten you as to the basic traits of each of the sixteen personality types, according to the Myers Briggs Personality test.

Reading this book will enlighten you as to the names and details of the nine main personality disorders, how to recognize the symptoms of each of these disorders and the best way to treat them. It is important to use this book as a guide to understanding these illnesses and to learn the best way to help and support anyone you know who is suffering from a personality disorder. However, a diagnosis must always be confirmed by a medical professional who will ensure treatment is available.

Many people who have a mental health issue will not recognise the issue in themselves; this book will ensure you understand each condition and can help your loved one to get the appropriate treatment.

Everyone deserves the chance to have a happy, fulfilling and balanced life. Read this and help those around you have that chance!