On This Day … 15 August

People (Births)

  • 1933 – Stanley Milgram, American social psychologist (d. 1984).
  • 1958 – Simon Baron-Cohen, English-Canadian psychiatrist and author.

Stanley Milgram

Stanley Milgram (15 August 1933 20 December 1984) was an American social psychologist, best known for his controversial experiments on obedience conducted in the 1960s during his professorship at Yale.

Milgram was influenced by the events of the Holocaust, especially the trial of Adolf Eichmann, in developing the experiment. After earning a PhD in social psychology from Harvard University, he taught at Yale, Harvard, and then for most of his career as a professor at the City University of New York Graduate Centre, until his death in 1984.

His small-world experiment, while at Harvard, led researchers to analyse the degree of connectedness, including the six degrees of separation concept. Later in his career, Milgram developed a technique for creating interactive hybrid social agents (called cyranoids), which has since been used to explore aspects of social- and self-perception.

He is widely regarded as one of the most important figures in the history of social psychology. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Milgram as the 46th-most-cited psychologist of the 20th century.

Simon Baron-Cohen

Sir Simon Philip Baron-Cohen FBA FBPsS FMedSci (born 15 August 1958) is a British clinical psychologist and professor of developmental psychopathology at the University of Cambridge. He is the director of the university’s Autism Research Centre and a Fellow of Trinity College. In 1985, Baron-Cohen formulated the mind-blindness theory of autism, the evidence for which he collated and published in 1995. In 1997, he formulated the foetal sex steroid theory of autism, the key test of which was published in 2015.

He has also made major contributions to the fields of typical cognitive sex differences, autism prevalence and screening, autism genetics, autism neuroimaging, autism and technical ability, and synaesthesia. Baron-Cohen was knighted in the 2021 New Year Honours for services to autistic people.

Book: Clinical Psychology: An Introduction

Book Title:

Clinical Psychology: An Introduction.

Author(s): Alan Carr.

Year: 2012.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Routledge.

Type(s): Hardcover, Paperback, and Kindle.

Synopsis:

Clinical Psychology is for students studying clinical psychology as part of an undergraduate programme in psychology, nursing, sociology or social and behavioural sciences. Undergraduate students who wish to know if postgraduate study in clinical psychology would be of interest to them will find this book particularly useful.

The book will inform students about:

  • The profession of clinical psychology.
  • How to get onto a clinical psychology postgraduate training programme.
  • The way clinical psychologists work with children, adolescents and adults with common psychological problems.
  • The main models of practice used by clinical psychologists, and.
  • The scientific evidence for the effectiveness of psychological interventions.

There is a focus on both clinical case studies and relevant research, and the book includes summaries, revision questions, advice on further reading and a glossary of key terms, all of which make it an excellent student-friendly introduction to an exceptionally interesting subject.

Book: Clinical Psychology

Book Title:

Clinical Psychology (Topics in Applied Psychology).

Author(s): Graham Davey, Nick Lake, and Adrian Whittington (Editors).

Year: 2015.

Edition: Second (2nd).

Publisher: Routledge.

Type(s): Hardcover, Paperback and Kindle.

Synopsis:

Clinical Psychology, Second Edition offers a comprehensive and an up-to-date introduction to the field. Written by clinical practitioners and researchers, as well as service users who add their personal stories, the book provides a broad and balanced view of contemporary clinical psychology.

This new edition has been extensively revised throughout and includes a new section on working with people with disabilities and physical health problems. It also includes a new chapter on career choices, and help and advice on how to move forward into clinical psychology training.

The book starts by explaining the core elements of what a clinical psychologist does and the principles of clinical practice, as well as outlining the role of the clinical psychologist within a healthcare team. It goes on to cover issues involved with working with children and families, adult mental health problems, working with people with disabilities and physical health problems, and the use of neuropsychology. The final part of the book explores current professional issues in clinical psychology, the history and future of clinical psychology, and career options.

The integrated and interactive approach, combined with the comprehensive coverage, make this book the ideal companion for undergraduate courses in clinical psychology, and anyone interested in a career in this field. It will also be of interest to anyone who wants to learn more about the work of a clinical psychologist, including other healthcare professionals.

Book: Clinical Psychology for Trainees: Foundations of Science-Informed Practice

Book Title:

Clinical Psychology for Trainees: Foundations of Science-Informed Practice.

Author(s): Andrew C. Page and Werner G.K. Stritzke.

Year: 2014.

Edition: Second (2nd).

Publisher: Cambridge University Press.

Type(s): Paperback and Kindle.

Synopsis:

Thoroughly revised, and fully updated for DSM-5, the new edition of this practice-focused book guides clinical psychology trainees through a field which is rapidly evolving. Through real-world exploration of the scientist-practitioner model, the book helps readers to develop the core competencies required in an increasingly interdisciplinary healthcare environment. New chapters cover brief interventions, routine monitoring of treatment progress, and managing alliance ruptures. Practical skills such as interviewing, diagnosis, assessment, treatment and case management are discussed with emphasis on the question ‘how would a scientist-practitioner think and act?’ By demonstrating how an evidence-base can influence every decision that a clinical psychologist makes, the book equips trainees to deliver the accountable, efficient, effective client-centred service which is demanded of professionals in the modern integrated care setting. Essential reading for all those enrolled in, or contemplating, postgraduate studies in clinical psychology.

Book: Clinical Psychology in Practice

Book Title:

Clinical Psychology in Practice.

Author(s): Helen Beinart, Paul Kennedy, and Susan Llewelyn (Editors).

Year: 2009.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: WB.

Type(s): Paperback and eBook.

Synopsis:

Academic, clinical and research aspects are offered in collaboration with clinical practitioners, who provide the clinical experience to foster the development of competencies in Health and Social Care.

  • Provides a clear, authoritative and lively introduction to the practice of clinical psychology.
  • Explains succinctly the range of competencies which a psychologist is expected to possess, and how these can be applied in a variety of contexts.
  • Key issues covered include awareness of the social context, the need for responsive and flexible practice, and respect for diversity.
  • Examples and principles are provided which demonstrate the clinical psychologist in action, and explain why and how they work as they do.

Book: Clinical Psychology, Research and Practice

Book Title:

Clinical Psychology, Research and Practice: An Introductory Text.

Author(s): Paul Bennett.

Year: 2021.

Edition: Fourth (4th).

Publisher: Open University Press.

Type(s): Paperback and Kindle.

Synopsis:

Extensively updated, this popular and accessibly written textbook outlines the latest research and therapeutic approaches within clinical psychology, alongside important developments in clinical practice. The book introduces and evaluates the conceptual models of mental health problems and their treatment, including second and third wave therapies.

Each disorder is considered from a psychological, social and biological perspective and different intervention types are thoroughly investigated.

Key updates to this edition include:

  • The development of case formulations for conditions within each chapter.
  • An articulation and use of modern theories of psychopathology, including sections on the transdiagnostic approach, meta-cognitive therapy, and acceptance and commitment therapy.
  • An introduction to emerging mental health issues, such as internet gaming disorder.
  • Challenging ‘stop and think’ boxes that encourage readers to address topical issues raised in each chapter, such as societal responses to topics as varied as psychopathy, paedophilia and the Black Lives Matter movement.
  • New vocabulary collated into key terms boxes for easy reference.

Book: Becoming a Clinical Psychologist: Everything You Need to Know

Book Title:

Becoming a Clinical Psychologist: Everything You Need to Know.

Author(s): Steven Mayers and Amanda Mwale.

Year: 2018.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Routledge.

Type(s): Hardcover, Paperback, and Kindle.

Synopsis:

Becoming a Clinical Psychologist: Everything You Need to Know brings together all the information you need to pursue a career in this competitive field.

This essential guide includes up-to-date information and guidance about a career in clinical psychology and gaining a place on clinical psychology training in the UK. It answers the questions all aspiring psychologists need to know, such as:

  • What is clinical psychology?
  • What is it like to train and work as a clinical psychologist?
  • How to make the most of your work and research experience.
  • How to prepare for clinical psychology applications and interviews.
  • Is clinical psychology the right career for me?

By cutting through all the jargon, and providing detailed interviews with trained and trainee clinical psychologists, Becoming a Clinical Psychologist will provide psychology graduates or undergrads considering a career in this area with all the tools they need.

Book: Borderline Personality Disorder For Dummies

Book Title:

Borderline Personality Disorder For Dummies, 2nd Edition.

Author(s): Charles H. Elliott and Laura L. Smith.

Year: 2020.

Edition: Second (2nd).

Publisher: For Dummies..

Type(s): Paperback and Kindle.

Synopsis:

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is an extremely serious – and often seriously neglected – condition. Despite around 4 million diagnoses in the US, BPD has attracted lower funding and levels of clinical concern than more “popular” conditions such as bipolar disorder. But there’s no need to lose hope! Borderline Personality Disorder For Dummies, 2nd Edition was written to bridge this gap and help sufferers learn how to break the cycle to lead a full and happy life.

BPD impacts the way you think and feel about yourself and others and can cause long-term patterns of disruptive relationships and difficulties with self-control. It often results from childhood abuse or neglect, as well as from genetic or brain abnormalities – particularly in areas of the brain that regulate emotion, impulsivity, and aggression. Knowing how it works means we know how to manage it, and Borderline Personality Disorder For Dummies – written in a friendly, easy-to-follow style by two leading clinical psychologists – is packed with useful techniques to do just that: from identifying triggers to finding the right care provider.

  • Get a compassionate, actionable understanding of the symptoms and history of BPD.
  • Acquire techniques to identify and halt damaging behaviours.
  • Evaluate providers and the latest therapies and treatments.
  • Set goals and habits to overcome problems step-by-step.

BPD should never be allowed to dictate anyone’s existence. This reference gives you the tools to take your life back and is a must-have for sufferers and their loved ones alike.

What is a School Psychological Examiner?

Introduction

In the United States education system, School Psychological Examiners assess the needs of students in schools for special education services or other interventions.

The post requires a relevant postgraduate qualification and specialist training. This role is distinct within school psychology from that of the psychiatrist, clinical psychologist and psychometrist.

Role of Psychological Examiners in Schools

School Psychological Examiners are assessors licensed by a State Department of Education to work with students from pre-kindergarten to twelfth grade in public schools, interviewing, observing, and administering and interpreting standardised testing instruments that measure cognitive and academic abilities, or describe behaviour, personality characteristics, attitude or aptitude, in order to determine eligibility for special education services, placement, or conduct re-evaluation, or occupational guidance and planning.

The work of the School Psychological Examiners is both qualitative and quantitative in nature. They prepare psychoeducational evaluation reports based on test results and interpretation. Integrated with case history, the evaluation reports should present an accurate and clear profile of a student’s level of functioning or disability, strengths and weaknesses, compare test results with the standards of the evaluation instruments, analyse potential test biases, and develop appropriate recommendations to help direct educational interventions and services in a most inclusive and least restrictive environment. Evaluation reports are framed by laws and regulations applicable to testing and assessment in special education, and must follow school district policies and the codes of ethics applicable to education, special education, and psychological assessment.

School Psychological Examiners also provide psychoeducational interventions such as consultation services, collaboration in behaviour management planning and monitoring, and devising social skills training programmes in public schools.

Unless additionally trained and licensed, School Psychological Examiners do not offer or provide psychotherapy or clinical diagnostic/treatment services, which are attributions of licensed psychiatrists and clinical psychologists, as provided by law and professional regulations.

Qualifications

School Psychological Examiners are highly trained and experienced educators who hold a master’s or higher degree in education or school counselling and at least one endorsement in special education. In addition to school district policies, School Psychological Examiners are bound by professional regulations, as well as by the ethical codes of testing and measurement. Other designations for School Psychological Examiners include ‘Educational Examiners’ or ‘Psychoeducational Examiners.’ Designation of this specialty varies among different school districts.

‘Psychometrist,’ from the term psychometrics, is an occupational designation not inclusive of the broader faculties of School Psychological Examiners. Psychometrists deal exclusively with quantitative test administration, do not require coursework beyond the bachelor’s level, or licensure by a state department of education. Training of psychometrists is primarily done on-the-job, and their services are valuable in mental health community agencies, assessment and institutional research, or test-producing companies, etc., rather than in K-12 schools.

Graduate Training and Licensure of School Psychological Examiners

Typical training includes coursework beyond the Master of Education, Master of Science in Education, or Master of Arts in Teaching degrees. Currently, School Psychological Examiners complete the courses required by their state department of education rather than by a prescribed self-contained programme of studies. The coursework is equivalent to an entire Specialist or Doctoral Degree; unfortunately just a handful of institutions of higher education offer this kind of self-standing graduate programme. Graduate courses of a psychological nature include:

  • Special Education Law.
  • Advanced Child and Adolescent Growth and Development.
  • Psychology of Students with Exceptionalities.
  • Abnormal Child and Adult Psychology.
  • Advanced Statistics and Research in Education and Psychology.
  • Tests and measurements.
  • Assessment and Evaluation of the Individual.
  • Individual Intelligence quotient.
  • Group Assessment.
  • Diagnostics and Remedial Reading.
  • Ethical issues in education and psychological measurement and evaluation reporting.
  • Methods of Instructing Students with Mild/Moderate Disabilities.
  • Methods of Instructing Students with Severe to Profound Disabilities.
  • Survey of Guidance and Counselling Techniques.
  • Practicum for School Psychological Examiners (150 supervised contact hours).

Licensure as School Psychological Examiner demands experience in a special education or school counselling setting, satisfactory completion of the required graduate coursework and practicum, plus a passing score on the ‘Praxis II Special Education: Knowledge-Based Core Principles’. Graduate school recommendation and verification of experience by the employing school district complete the requirements. In addition to the practicum, on-the-job mentoring supervision for at least two school years, sometimes four years, allows the transition from initial licensure to standard professional licensure. An annual professional development plan and ongoing performance-based evaluation ensure ‘High Quality’ professionalism as required by the No Child Left Behind law and related regulations.

Competencies

The clinical and technical skills needed to be a competent behavioural and clinical assessor include the abilities to do the following (Sattler & Hoge, 2006):

  • Establish and maintain rapport with children, parents, and teachers.
  • Use effective assessment techniques appropriate for evaluating children’s behaviour.
  • Use effective techniques for obtaining accurate and complete information from parents and teachers.
  • Evaluate the psychometric properties of tests and other measures.
  • Select an appropriate assessment battery.
  • Administer and score tests and other assessment tools by following standardised procedures.
  • Observe and evaluate behaviour objectively.
  • Perform informal assessments.
  • Interpret assessment results.
  • Use assessment findings to develop effective interventions.
  • Communicate assessment findings effectively, both orally and in writing.
  • Adhere to ethical standards.
  • Read and interpret research in behavioural and clinical assessment.
  • Keep up with laws and regulations concerning the assessment and placement of children with special needs.

Additionally, high quality School Psychological Examiners exhibit proficiency-level knowledge on:

  • The provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Act and the Section 504 of the Civil Rights Act and related legislation.
  • State and federal laws, and all the applicable regulations, policies, and standards pertaining the provision of psychosocial and educational services to disabled individuals.
  • Children and adolescents’ advanced development and behaviour.
  • Multicultural factors in attitudes and behaviours.
  • Analysis and diagnosis of learning problems including special consideration of low incidence populations.
  • Integration of knowledge, facts, and theory on classroom environment, psychosocial principles, and test results, to plan for prescriptive instruction, management, and education of students with special needs.
  • Focused and methodical psychoeducational evaluation reporting, providing sound and accurate information and research-based remediation recommendations to improve individual student’s learning, achievement, and behavioural performance.
  • Teamwork and collaboration for the process of staffing with other school professionals and collaborative development of instructional strategies for students with special needs.
  • Provision of assistance with instructional modifications or accommodations, and programming or transition recommendations for the Individualised Education Programme (IEP).
  • Accountability for the monitoring and outcome assessment of services and interventions.

Evaluation Standards

Evaluation standards provide guidelines for designing, implementing, assessing, and reporting the psychoeducational evaluation reported by school psychological examiners. The evaluation is informed by professional codes of ethics.

  • Standards for Qualifications of Test Users.
  • Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education.
  • Standards for Multicultural Assessment.
  • Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing.

Reference

Sattler, J. M. & Hoge, R. D. (2006). Assessment of Children: Behavioral, Social, and Clinical Foundations. 5th Ed. San Diego, CA: Jerome M. Sattler Publisher, Inc. p.2.

What is Applied Psychology?

Introduction

Applied psychology is the use of psychological methods and findings of scientific psychology to solve practical problems of human and animal behaviour and experience.

Mental health, organisational psychology, business management, education, health, product design, ergonomics, and law are just a few of the areas that have been influenced by the application of psychological principles and findings. Some of the areas of applied psychology include clinical psychology, counselling psychology, evolutionary psychology, industrial and organisational psychology, legal psychology, neuropsychology, occupational health psychology, human factors, forensic psychology, engineering psychology, school psychology, sports psychology, traffic psychology, community psychology, and medical psychology. In addition, a number of specialised areas in the general field of psychology have applied branches (e.g. applied social psychology, applied cognitive psychology). However, the lines between sub-branch specialisations and major applied psychology categories are often blurred. For example, a human factors psychologist might use a cognitive psychology theory. This could be described as human factor psychology or as applied cognitive psychology.

Brief History

The founder of applied psychology was Hugo Münsterberg. He came to America (Harvard) from Germany (Berlin, Laboratory of Stern), invited by William James, and, like many aspiring psychologists during the late 19th century, originally studied philosophy. Münsterberg had many interests in the field of psychology such as purposive psychology, social psychology and forensic psychology. In 1907 he wrote several magazine articles concerning legal aspects of testimony, confessions and courtroom procedures, which eventually developed into his book, On the Witness Stand. The following year the Division of Applied Psychology was adjoined to the Harvard Psychological Laboratory. Within 9 years he had contributed eight books in English, applying psychology to education, industrial efficiency, business and teaching. Eventually Hugo Münsterberg and his contributions would define him as the creator of applied psychology. In 1920, the International Association of Applied Psychology (IAAP) was founded, as the first international scholarly society within the field of psychology.

Most professional psychologists in the US worked in an academic setting until World War II. But during the war, the armed forces and the Office of Strategic Services hired psychologists in droves to work on issues such as troop morale and propaganda design. After the war, psychologists found an expanding range of jobs outside of the academy. Since 1970, the number of college graduates with degrees in psychology has more than doubled, from 33,679 to 76,671 in 2002. The annual numbers of masters’ and PhD degrees have also increased dramatically over the same period. All the while, degrees in the related fields of economics, sociology, and political science have remained constant.

Professional organisations have organised special events and meetings to promote the idea of applied psychology. In 1990, the American Psychological Society held a Behavioural Science Summit and formed the “Human Capital Initiative”, spanning schools, workplace productivity, drugs, violence, and community health. The American Psychological Association declared 2000-2010 the Decade of Behaviour, with a similarly broad scope. Psychological methods are considered applicable to all aspects of human life and society.

Advertising

Business advertisers have long consulted psychologists in assessing what types of messages will most effectively induce a person to buy a particular product. Using the psychological research methods and the findings in human’s cognition, motivation, attitudes and decision making, those can help to design more persuasive advertisement. Their research includes the study of unconscious influences and brand loyalty. However, the effect of unconscious influences was controversial.

Clinical Psychology

Clinical psychology includes the study and application of psychology for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development. Central to its practice are psychological assessment and psychotherapy, although clinical psychologists may also engage in research, teaching, consultation, forensic testimony, and programme development and administration. Some clinical psychologists may focus on the clinical management of patients with brain injury – this area is known as clinical neuropsychology. In many countries clinical psychology is a regulated mental health profession.

The work performed by clinical psychologists tends to be done inside various therapy models, all of which involve a formal relationship between professional and client – usually an individual, couple, family, or small group – that employs a set of procedures intended to form a therapeutic alliance, explore the nature of psychological problems, and encourage new ways of thinking, feeling, or behaving. The four major perspectives are psychodynamic, cognitive behavioural, existential-humanistic, and systems or family therapy. There has been a growing movement to integrate these various therapeutic approaches, especially with an increased understanding of issues regarding ethnicity, gender, spirituality, and sexual-orientation. With the advent of more robust research findings regarding psychotherapy, there is growing evidence that most of the major therapies are about of equal effectiveness, with the key common element being a strong therapeutic alliance. Because of this, more training programmes and psychologists are now adopting an eclectic therapeutic orientation.

Clinical psychologists do not usually prescribe medication, although there is a growing number of psychologists who do have prescribing privileges, in the field of medical psychology. In general, however, when medication is warranted many psychologists will work in cooperation with psychiatrists so that clients get therapeutic needs met. Clinical psychologists may also work as part of a team with other professionals, such as social workers and nutritionists.

Counselling Psychology

Counselling psychology is an applied specialisation within psychology, that involves both research and practice in a number of different areas or domains. According to Gelso and Fretz (2001), there are some central unifying themes among counselling psychologists. These include a focus on an individual’s strengths, relationships, their educational and career development, as well as a focus on normal personalities. Counselling psychologists help people improve their well-being, reduce and manage stress, and improve overall functioning in their lives. The interventions used by Counselling Psychologists may be either brief or long-term in duration. Often they are problem focused and goal-directed. There is a guiding philosophy which places a value on individual differences and an emphasis on “prevention, development, and adjustment across the life-span.”

Educational Psychology

Educational psychology is devoted to the study of how humans learn in educational settings, especially schools. Psychologists assess the effects of specific educational interventions: e.g. phonics versus whole language instruction in early reading attainment. They also study the question of why learning occurs differently in different situations.

Another domain of educational psychology is the psychology of teaching. In some colleges, educational psychology courses are called “the psychology of learning and teaching”. Educational psychology derives a great deal from basic-science disciplines within psychology including cognitive science and behaviourally-oriented research on learning.

Environmental Psychology

Environmental psychology is the psychological study of humans and their interactions with their environments. The types of environments studied are limitless, ranging from homes, offices, classrooms, factories, nature, and so on. However, across these different environments, there are several common themes of study that emerge within each one. Noise level and ambient temperature are clearly present in all environments and often subjects of discussion for environmental psychologists. Crowding and stressors are a few other aspects of environments studied by this sub-discipline of psychology. When examining a particular environment, environmental psychology looks at the goals and purposes of the people in the using the environment, and tries to determine how well the environment is suiting the needs of the people using it. For example, a quiet environment is necessary for a classroom of students taking a test, but would not be needed or expected on a farm full of animals. The concepts and trends learned through environmental psychology can be used when setting up or rearranging spaces so that the space will best perform its intended function. The top common, more well known areas of psychology that drive this applied field include: cognitive, perception, learning, and social psychology.

Forensic Psychology and Legal Psychology

Forensic psychology and legal psychology are the areas concerned with the application of psychological methods and principles to legal questions and issues. Most typically, forensic psychology involves a clinical analysis of a particular individual and an assessment of some specific psycho-legal question. The psycho-legal question does not have to be criminal in nature. In fact, the forensic psychologist rarely gets involved in the actual criminal investigations. Custody cases are a great example of non-criminal evaluations by forensic psychologists. The validity and upholding of eyewitness testimony is an area of forensic psychology that does veer closer to criminal investigations, though does not directly involve the psychologist in the investigation process. Psychologists are often called to testify as expert witnesses on issues such as the accuracy of memory, the reliability of police interrogation, and the appropriate course of action in child custody cases.

Legal psychology refers to any application of psychological principles, methods or understanding to legal questions or issues. In addition to the applied practices, legal psychology also includes academic or empirical research on topics involving the relationship of law to human mental processes and behaviour. However, inherent differences that arise when placing psychology in the legal context. Psychology rarely makes absolute statements. Instead, psychologists traffic in the terms like level of confidence, percentages, and significance. Legal matters, on the other hand, look for absolutes: guilty or not guilty. This makes for a sticky union between psychology and the legal system. Some universities operate dual JD/PhD programmes focusing on the intersection of these two areas.

The Committee on Legal Issues of the American Psychological Association is known to file amicus curae briefs, as applications of psychological knowledge to high-profile court cases.

A related field, police psychology, involves consultation with police departments and participation in police training.

Health and Medicine

Health psychology concerns itself with understanding how biology, behaviour, and social context influence health and illness. Health psychologists generally work alongside other medical professionals in clinical settings, although many also teach and conduct research. Although its early beginnings can be traced to the kindred field of clinical psychology, four different approaches to health psychology have been defined: clinical, public health, community and critical health psychology.

Health psychologists aim to change health behaviours for the dual purpose of helping people stay healthy and helping patients adhere to disease treatment regimens. The focus of health psychologists tend to centre on the health crisis facing the western world particularly in the US, cognitive behavioural therapy and behaviour modification are techniques often employed by health psychologists. Psychologists also study patients’ compliance with their doctors’ orders.

Health psychologists view a person’s mental condition as heavily related to their physical condition. An important concept in this field is stress, a mental phenomenon with well-known consequences for physical health.

Medical

Medical psychology involves the application of a range of psychological principles, theories and findings applied to the effective management of physical and mental disorders to improve the psychological and physical health of the patient. The American Psychological Association (APA) defines medical psychology as the branch of psychology that integrates somatic and psychotherapeutic modalities, into the management of mental illness, health rehabilitation and emotional, cognitive, behavioural and substance use disorders. According to Muse and Moore (2012), the medical psychologist’s contributions in the areas of psychopharmacology which sets it apart from other of psychotherapy and psychotherapists.

Occupational Health Psychology

Occupational health psychology (OHP) is a relatively new discipline that emerged from the confluence of health psychology, industrial and organizational psychology, and occupational health. OHP has its own journals and professional organisations. The field is concerned with identifying psychosocial characteristics of workplaces that give rise to health-related problems in people who work. These problems can involve physical health (e.g. cardiovascular disease) or mental health (e.g. depression). Examples of psychosocial characteristics of workplaces that OHP has investigated include amount of decision latitude a worker can exercise and the supportiveness of supervisors. OHP is also concerned with the development and implementation of interventions that can prevent or ameliorate work-related health problems. In addition, OHP research has important implications for the economic success of organisations. Other research areas of concern to OHP include workplace incivility and violence, work-home carryover, unemployment and downsizing, and workplace safety and accident prevention. Two important OHP journals are the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology and Work & Stress. Three important organisations closely associated with OHP are the International Commission on Occupational Health’s Scientific Committee on Work Organisation and Psychosocial Factors (ICOH-WOPS), the Society for Occupational Health Psychology, and the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology.

Human Factors and Ergonomics

Human factors and ergonomics (HF&E) is the study of how cognitive and psychological processes affect our interaction with tools, machines, and objects in the environment. Many branches of psychology attempt to create models of and understand human behaviour. These models are usually based on data collected from experiments. Human Factor psychologists however, take the same data and use it to design or adapt processes and objects that will complement the human component of the equation. Rather than humans learning how to use and manipulate a piece of technology, human factors strives to design technology to be inline with the human behaviour models designed by general psychology. This could be accounting for physical limitations of humans, as in ergonomics, or designing systems, especially computer systems, that work intuitively with humans, as does engineering psychology.

Ergonomics is applied primarily through office work and the transportation industry. Psychologists here take into account the physical limitations of the human body and attempt to reduce fatigue and stress by designing products and systems that work within the natural limitations of the human body. From simple things like the size of buttons and design of office chairs to layout of airplane cockpits, human factor psychologists, specialising in ergonomics, attempt to de-stress our everyday lives and sometimes even save them.

Human factor psychologists specialising in engineering psychology tend to take on slightly different projects than their ergonomic centred counterparts. These psychologists look at how a human and a process interact. Often engineering psychology may be centred on computers. However at the base level, a process is simply a series of inputs and outputs between a human and a machine. The human must have a clear method to input data and be able to easily access the information in output. The inability of rapid and accurate corrections can sometimes lead to drastic consequences, as summed up by many stories in Set Phasers on Stun. The engineering psychologists wants to make the process of inputs and outputs as intuitive as possible for the user.

The goal of research in human factors is to understand the limitations and biases of human mental processes and behaviour, and design items and systems that will interact accordingly with the limitations. Some may see human factors as intuitive or a list of dos and don’ts, but in reality, human factor research strives to make sense of large piles of data to bring precise applications to product designs and systems to help people work more naturally, intuitively with the items of their surroundings.

Industrial and Organisational Psychology

Industrial and organisational psychology, or I-O psychology, focuses on the psychology of work. Relevant topics within I-O psychology include the psychology of recruitment, selecting employees from an applicant pool, training, performance appraisal, job satisfaction, work motivation. work behaviour, occupational stress, accident prevention, occupational safety and health, management, retirement planning and unemployment among many other issues related to the workplace and people’s work lives. In short, I-O psychology is the application of psychology to the workplace. One aspect of this field is job analysis, the detailed study of which behaviours a given job entails.

Though the name of the title “Industrial Organisational Psychology” implies 2 split disciplines being chained together, it is near impossible to have one half without the other. If asked to generally define the differences, Industrial psychology focuses more on the Human Resources aspects of the field, and Organisational psychology focuses more on the personal interactions of the employees. When applying these principles however, they are not easily broken apart. For example, when developing requirements for a new job position, the recruiters are looking for an applicant with strong communication skills in multiple areas. The developing of the position requirements falls under the industrial psychology, human resource type work. and the requirement of communication skills is related to how the employee with interacts with co-workers. As seen here, it is hard to separate task of developing a qualifications list from the types of qualifications on the list. This is parallel to how the I and O are nearly inseparable in practice. Therefore, I-O psychologists are generally rounded in both industrial and organisational psychology though they will have some specialisation. Other topics of interest for I-O psychologists include performance evaluation, training, and much more.

Military psychology includes research into the classification, training, and performance of soldiers.

School Psychology

School psychology is a field that applies principles of clinical psychology and educational psychology to the diagnosis and treatment of students’ behavioural and learning problems. School psychologists are educated in child and adolescent development, learning theories, psychological and psycho-educational assessment, personality theories, therapeutic interventions, special education, psychology, consultation, child and adolescent psychopathology, and the ethical, legal and administrative codes of their profession.

According to Division 16 (Division of School Psychology) of the American Psychological Association (APA), school psychologists operate according to a scientific framework. They work to promote effectiveness and efficiency in the field. School psychologists conduct psychological assessments, provide brief interventions, and develop or help develop prevention programmes. Additionally, they evaluate services with special focus on developmental processes of children within the school system, and other systems, such as families. School psychologists consult with teachers, parents, and school personnel about learning, behavioural, social, and emotional problems. They may teach lessons on parenting skills (like school counsellors), learning strategies, and other skills related to school mental health. In addition, they explain test results to parents and students. They provide individual, group, and in some cases family counselling. School psychologists are actively involved in district and school crisis intervention teams. They also supervise graduate students in school psychology. School psychologists in many districts provide professional development to teachers and other school personnel on topics such as positive behaviour intervention plans and achievement tests.

One salient application for school psychology in today’s world is responding to the unique challenges of increasingly multicultural classrooms. For example, psychologists can contribute insight about the differences between individualistic and collectivistic cultures.

School psychologists are influential within the school system and are frequently consulted to solve problems. Practitioners should be able to provide consultation and collaborate with other members of the educational community and confidently make decisions based on empirical research.

Social Change

Psychologists have been employed to promote “green” behaviour, i.e. sustainable development. In this case, their goal is behaviour modification, through strategies such as social marketing. Tactics include education, disseminating information, organising social movements, passing laws, and altering taxes to influence decisions.

Psychology has been applied on a world scale with the aim of population control. For example, one strategy towards television programming combines social models in a soap opera with informational messages during advertising time. This strategy successfully increased women’s enrolment at family planning clinics in Mexico. The programming – which has been deployed around the world by Population Communications International and the Population Media Centre – combines family planning messages with representations of female education and literacy.

Sport Psychology

Sport psychology is a specialisation within psychology that seeks to understand psychological/mental factors that affect performance in sports, physical activity and exercise and apply these to enhance individual and team performance. The sport psychology approach differs from the coaches and players perspective. Coaches tend to narrow their focus and energy towards the end-goal. They are concerned with the actions that lead to the win, as opposed to the sport psychologist who tries to focus the players thoughts on just achieving the win. Sport psychology trains players mentally to prepare them, whereas coaches tend to focus mostly on physical training. Sport psychology deals with increasing performance by managing emotions and minimizing the psychological effects of injury and poor performance. Some of the most important skills taught are goal setting, relaxation, visualization, self-talk awareness and control, concentration, using rituals, attribution training, and periodisation. The principles and theories may be applied to any human movement or performance tasks (e.g. playing a musical instrument, acting in a play, public speaking, motor skills). Usually, experts recommend that students be trained in both kinesiology (i.e. sport and exercise sciences, physical education) and counselling.

Traffic Psychology

Traffic psychology is an applied discipline within psychology that looks at the relationship between psychological processes and cognitions and the actual behaviour of road users. In general, traffic psychologists attempt to apply these principles and research findings, in order to provide solutions to problems such as traffic mobility and congestion, road accidents, speeding. Research psychologists also are involved with the education and the motivation of road users.