What is the Patented Medicines Prices Review Board (Canada)?


The Patented Medicine Prices Review Board (French: Conseil d’examen du prix des médicaments brevetés) is a federal quasi-judicial regulatory and reporting agency in Canada with a mandate to protect consumers by ensuring that the prices of patented medication charged by manufacturers of patented drugs are not excessive. The board does this through its role as a regulator, and through its reporting on trends, research and development in the Canadian pharmaceutical industry.

The board investigates, reviews and negotiates the price of individual drugs that are still under patent and which have no generic substitutes. It establishes the maximum prices that can be charged in Canada for patented drugs.


The board is accountable to Parliament through the Minister of Health, the elected official responsible for the health portfolio. Under sections 89 and 100 of the Patent Act, the board produces an annual report submitted to the minister, who tables it in the House of Commons.


Bill C-22, which was passed in 1987, established a compulsory licensing system under which drug patent holders were required to allow competing drug manufacturers to import their patented drug in exchange for a very modest 4% royalty, which resulted in an increase in the market share of generic drugs.  At the same time, it established the federal Patented Medicine Prices Review Board. The board determines a maximum price for individual drugs through a review process, and negotiates “voluntary compliance agreements” with drug companies to ensure that “manufacturer prices are within justification, and [are] not excessive”.

Annual Reports

According to their annual report for the fiscal year 2017, there were 1,391 patented medicines for human use that were reported, which included 80 new medicines. By 31 December 2017, there were 14 voluntary compliance undertakings accepted. Patented medicines represented 61.5% of the total medicine sales in Canada in 2017 up from 60.8% in 2016.

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What is a Mental Health Consumer?


A mental health consumer (or mental health patient) is a person who is obtaining treatment or support for a mental disorder, also known as psychiatric or mental illness.

The term was coined by people who use mental health services in an attempt to empower those with mental health issues, historically considered a marginalised segment of society. The term suggests that there is a reciprocal contract between those who provide a service and those who use a service and that individuals have a choice in their treatment and that without them there could not exist mental health providers.

Brief History

In the 1970s the term “patient” was most commonly used. Mental Health activists of the civil rights times recognised, as did many other groups seeking self-definition, that such labels are metaphors that reflect how identities are perceived and constructed. In particular, in the mental health field they shape the nature of the relationship between the giver and receiver of psychiatric services, be it one with an emphasis on reciprocity or hierarchy. Users of psychiatric services repulsed the efforts of experts to define them and sought to develop ways to define themselves. In Australia, informal support groups of people who had recovered from episodes of mental ill health were formed during the first wave of moving patients out of psychiatric hospitals into the community in the 1960s. In the USA and other countries, radical movements to change service delivery and legislation began to be driven by consumers during the 1980s. Activists, such as Judi Chamberlain, pressed for alternatives to psychiatrist dominated and controlled systems of mental health provision. Chamberlain’s On Our Own: Patient Controlled Alternatives to the Mental Health System helped guide others intent on a more collaborative form of mental health healing.

In the 1980s with some funding from NIMH, small experimental groups flourished. In 1985 at the First Alternatives Conference attendees agreed upon the term “consumer” reflecting the patients’ choice of services. The term also implied assumptions of rationality and ability to make choices in one’s own best interests rather than be a passive incapacitated recipient of “expert” attention. In the 1990s many consumer groups were formed, such as Self Help Clearing House and the National Empowerment Centre. They continued to press for more peer involvement in alternatives treatments, pointing out that peers support and comfort, which may be in contrast to some therapists who just attempt to change the behaviour and thinking patterns.

Contemporary Usage

Today, the word mental health consumer has expanded in the popular usage of consumers themselves to include anyone who has received mental health services in the past, anyone who has a behavioural health diagnosis, or simply anyone who has experienced a mental or behavioural disorder. Other terms sometimes used by members of this community for empowerment through positive self-identification include “peers,” “people with mental health disabilities,” “psychiatric survivors,” “users,” individuals with “lived experience” and “ex-patients.” The term “service users,” is commonly used in the UK. In the US “consumer” is most frequently used by ex-patients and users of psychiatric and alternative services.

One can view this term, “consumer,” neutrally as a person who receives psychological services, perhaps from a psychologist, a psychiatrist or a social worker. It can be impersonal term relating to the use in the health sector of a large economy. It suggests that the consumer expects to have some influence on service delivery and provides feedback to the provider. Used in its more activist sense, consumer groups aim to correct perceived problems in mental health services and to promote consultation with consumers. Consumer theory was devised to interpret the special relationship between a service provider and service user in the context of mental health. Consumer theory examines the consequences and sociological meaning of the relationship.

Specialist Mental Health Nurse Practitioner Candidate Roles & the Benefits these Roles can have in Reducing the Significant Morbidity & Mortality of Mental Health Consumers

Research Paper Title

Improving physical health outcomes for people with severe mental illness: A proof-of-concept study of nurse practitioner candidate practice.


People with severe mental illness have significantly reduced life expectancy and higher risk of cardiovascular diseases than the general population.

There is a critical need for quality physical health care to improve consumers’ health outcomes.

There is minimal knowledge, however, on the impact of mental health nurse practitioner candidate (NPC) practices on consumers’ health outcomes.

The aim of this proof-of-concept study was to describe the impacts of NPC practices on the quality of physical healthcare provision and physical health outcomes (cardiovascular and cardiometabolic) of consumers in community mental health service settings.


Using a mixed methods design, quantitative data were collected for 12 months prior to (Period 1), and 12 months during (Period 2), the candidacy period.

Qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of n = 10 consumers to explore their perspectives on physical healthcare provision by the NPCs.

During the 12-month candidacy period, the number of metabolic monitoring assessments rose from n = 55 in Period 1 to n = 146 in Period 2 (P < 0.01, χ2 = 41.20).

Advanced practices provided by NPCs included taking an extensive holistic history and clinical examination, ordering diagnostic pathology, and clinical simulation of physical health medication prescription (under medical supervision).


Analysis of consumer interviews resulted in two themes:

  • Positive and helpful NPC health care; and
  • Improvements in physical and mental health.


The findings add new knowledge on specialist mental health nurse practitioner candidate roles and demonstrate the benefits these roles can have in reducing the significant morbidity and mortality of mental health consumers.


Furness, T., Giandinoto, J.A., Wordie-Thompson, E., Woolley, S., Dempster, V. & Foster, K. (2019) Improving physical health outcomes for people with severe mental illness: A proof-of-concept study of nurse practitioner candidate practice. International Journal of Mental health Nursing. doi: 10.1111/inm.12680. [Epub ahead of print].