Book: Mental Health Disorders: A Social Problem That Needs Help From Society, How To Provide Treatment, Mental Health Audiobook

Book Title:

Mental Health Disorders: A Social Problem That Needs Help From Society, How To Provide Treatment, Mental Health Audiobook.

Author(s): Scott Langanke.

Year: 2021.

Edition: First (1ed).

Publisher: Independently Published.

Type(s): Paperback.

Synopsis:

There are many different mental disorders, with different presentations. They are generally characterised by a combination of abnormal thoughts, perceptions, emotions, behaviour, and relationships with others. Mental disorders include depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and other psychoses, dementia, and developmental disorders including autism.

It is becoming an imperative social problem that needs our joined hands to tackle.

This audiobook is designed for mental health professionals who do not have much time to study and also for ordinary people who want to understand more about mental disorders in order to help themselves or others overcome difficulties. It comes in text & audio format so that you can listen to it while at the gym or stuck in traffic! Sections include:

  1. Introduction.
  2. Cautionary Statement for Forensic Use of DSM-5.
  3. Personality Disorders.
  4. Brief Psychotic Disorder.
  5. Schizotypal Disorder.
  6. Narcissistic Personality Disorder.
  7. Diagnostic Criteria For Autism And Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).
  8. Neurodevelopmental Disorders.
  9. Communication Disorders.
  10. Specific Learning Disorder.

And SO MUCH MORE!

Book: The Origins and Course of Common Mental Disorders

Book Title:

The Origins and Course of Common Mental Disorders.

Author(s): David Goldberg and Ian Goodyer.

Year: 2005.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Routledge.

Type(s): Hardcover, Paperback, and Kindle.

Synopsis:

Why are some people more vulnerable to common mental disorders than others?

What effects do genes and environments exert on the development of mental disorders?

The Origins and Course of Common Mental Disorders describes the nature, characteristics and causes of common emotional and behavioural disorders as they develop across the lifespan, providing a clear and concise account of recent advances in our knowledge of the origins and history of anxious, depressive, anti-social, and substance related disorders.

Combining a lifespan approach with developments in neurobiology, this book describes the epidemiology of emotional and behavioural disorders in childhood, adolescence and adult life. David Goldberg and Ian Goodyer demonstrate how both genes and environments exert different but key effects on the development of these disorders and suggest a developmental model as the most appropriate for determining vulnerabilities for psychopathology. Divided into four sections, the book covers the:

  • Nature and distribution of common mental disorders.
  • Biological basis of common disorders.
  • Human life cycle relevant to common disorders.
  • Developmental model.

This highly readable account of the origins of emotional and behavioural disorders will be of interest to behavioural science students and all mental health professionals including psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, nurses, and counsellors.

Book: A Sociology of Mental Health and Illness

Book Title:

A Sociology of Mental Health and Illness.

Author(s): Anne Rogers and David Pilgrim.

Year: 2020.

Edition: Sixth (6th).

Publisher: Open University Press.

Type(s): Paperback and Kindle.

Synopsis:

How do we understand mental health problems in their social context?

A former BMA Medical Book of the Year award winner, this book provides a sociological analysis of major areas of mental health and illness. The book considers contemporary and historical aspects of sociology, social psychiatry, policy and therapeutic law to help students develop an in-depth and critical approach to this complex subject. New developments for the sixth edition include:

  • Brand new chapter on ageing and older people.
  • Updated material on social class, ethnicity, user involvement, young people and adolescence.
  • New coverage on prisons legalism and the rise of digital mental health management and delivery.

A classic in its field, this well-established textbook offers a rich, contemporary and well-crafted overview of mental health and illness unrivalled by competitors and is essential reading for students and professionals studying a range of medical sociology and health-related courses. It is also highly suitable for trainee mental health workers in the fields of social work, nursing, clinical psychology and psychiatry.

Book: Anatomy of an Epidemic

Book Title:

Anatomy of an Epidemic: Magic Bullets, Psychiatric Drugs, and the Astonishing Rise of Mental Illness in America.

Author(s): Robert Whitaker.

Year: 2010.

Edition: First (1ed).

Publisher: Crown Publishing Group.

Type(s): Hardcover and Kindle.

Synopsis:

The award-winning author of Mad in America presents a controversial assessment of the rise in mental illness-related disabilities that considers if drug-based care may be fuelling illness rates throughout the past half century.

Book: The End of Mental Illness

Book Title:

The End of Mental Illness: How Neuroscience Is Transforming Psychiatry and Helping Prevent or Reverse Mood and Anxiety Disorders, ADHD, Addictions, PTSD, Psychosis, Personality Disorders, and More.

Author(s): Daniel G. Amen.

Year: 2020.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Tyndale House Publishers.

Type(s): Hardcover, Paperback, Audiobook, and Kindle.

Synopsis:

Though incidence of these conditions is skyrocketing, for the past four decades standard treatment has not much changed, and success rates in treating them have barely improved, either. Meanwhile, the stigma of the “mental illness” label – damaging and devastating on its own – can often prevent sufferers from getting the help they need.

Brain specialist and bestselling author Dr. Daniel Amen is on the forefront of a new movement within medicine and related disciplines that aims to change all that. In The End of Mental Illness, Dr. Amen draws on the latest findings of neuroscience to challenge an outdated psychiatric paradigm and help readers take control and improve the health of their own brain, minimising or reversing conditions that may be preventing them from living a full and emotionally healthy life.

The End of Mental Illness will help you discover:

  • Why labelling someone as having a “mental illness” is not only inaccurate but harmful.
  • Why standard treatment may not have helped you or a loved one – and why diagnosing and treating you based on your symptoms alone so often misses the true cause of those symptoms and results in poor outcomes.
  • At least 100 simple things you can do yourself to heal your brain and prevent or reverse the problems that are making you feel sad, mad, or bad.
  • How to identify your “brain type” and what you can do to optimise your particular type.
  • Where to find the kind of health provider who understands and uses the new paradigm of brain health.

Book: Mental Disorders Audio And Text Book: Complete Understanding, Ways To Treat And Easy To Follow

Book Title:

Mental Disorders Audio And Text Book: Complete Understanding, Ways To Treat And Easy To Follow.

Author(s): Garfield Chrismom.

Year: 2021.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Independently Published.

Type(s): Paperback and Kindle.

Synopsis:

There are many different mental disorders, with different presentations. They are generally characterised by a combination of abnormal thoughts, perceptions, emotions, behaviour, and relationships with others. Mental disorders include depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and other psychoses, dementia, and developmental disorders including autism.

It is becoming an imperative social problem that needs our joined hands to tackle.

This audiobook is designed for mental health professionals who do not have much time to study and also for ordinary people who want to understand more about mental disorders in order to help themselves or others overcome difficulties. It comes in text & audio format so that you can listen to it while at the gym or stuck in traffic! Sections include:

  1. Introduction.
  2. Cautionary Statement for Forensic Use of DSM-5.
  3. Personality Disorders.
  4. Brief Psychotic Disorder.
  5. Schizotypal Disorder.
  6. Narcissistic Personality Disorder.
  7. Diagnostic Criteria For Autism And Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).
  8. Neurodevelopmental Disorders.
  9. Communication Disorders.
  10. Specific Learning Disorder.

And SO MUCH MORE!

Book: Management of Mental Disorders

Book Title:

Management of Mental Disorders.

Author(s): Dr. Gavin Andrews, Dr. Kimberlie Dean, Dr. Margo Genderson, Dr. Caroline Hunt, Dr. Philip Mitchell, Dr. Perminder Sachdev, and Dr. Julian Trollor.

Year: 2014.

Edition: Fifth (5th).

Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform.

Type(s): Paperback.

Synopsis:

Management of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (MMD5) is an innovative book that provides practical guidance in recognizing and treating mental disorders. The fifth edition has been revised by experts and is a compilation of the best practices in mental health circa 2013. MMD5 outlines the steps required for proper assessment and focuses on how to implement the many effective treatments that are now available. This book also includes resource materials, such as outcome measures, worksheets, and information pamphlets for individuals with mental disorders and their families. MMD5 is designed to complement the skills of busy clinicians and for use as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate students.

The design of the fifth edition – core assessment and clinical skills and sections on the internalising, externalising, psychotic, neurodevelopmental, and neurocognitive clusters of disorders – is based on papers prepared for the discussions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and the International Classification of Diseases, 11th Edition (ICD-11) working groups. These papers presume that disorders within each of these five clusters share genetic risk factors, familiarity, specific environmental risk factors, neural substrates, biomarkers, temperamental antecedents, abnormalities of cognitive or emotional processing, symptom similarity, high rates of comorbidity, course of illness, and treatment response that differ in important ways from disorders within the other four clusters. The clusters are not intended to replace existing diagnostic criteria but rather are used to facilitate the identification of possible relationships between disorders in terms of the risk and clinical factors.

The present edition is the first to make the five-cluster structure of mental disorders explicit. Management of Mental Disorders is a publication of the Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression (CRUfAD), University of New South Wales (UNSW) School of Psychiatry at St Vincent’s Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

CRUfAD has produced treatment protocols for 30 years, first for the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists and then with the Division of Mental Health, World Health Organisation, Geneva. Country specific versions of previous editions of the Management of Mental Disorders were produced for New Zealand, Canada, the United Kingdom, China, and Italy.

Book: Psychoanalysis and the Cinema- The Imaginary Signifier

Book Title:

Psychoanalysis and the Cinema- The Imaginary Signifier.

Author(s): Christian Metz.

Year: 1984.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan.

Type(s): Hardcover and Paperback.

Synopsis:

In the first half of the book Metz explores a number of aspects of the psychological anchoring of cinema as a social institution.

In the second half, he shifts his approach…to look at the operations of meaning in the film text, at the figures of image and sound concatenation. Thus he is led to consideration of metaphor and metonymy in film, this involving a detailed account of these two figures as they appear in psychoanalysis and linguistics.

Book: Psychiatric Diagnosis and Classification

Book Title:

Psychiatric Diagnosis and Classification.

Author(s): Mario Maj, Wolfgang Gaebel, Juan Jose Lopez-Ibor, and Norman Sartorius (Editors).

Year: 2002.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell.

Type(s): Hardcover and Kindle.

Synopsis:

This book provides an overview of the strengths and limitations of the currently available systems for the diagnosis and classification of mental disorders, in particular the DSM-IV and the ICD-10, and of the prospects for future developments. Among the covered issues are: The impact of biological research The diagnosis of mental disorders in primary care The usefulness and limitations of the concept of comorbidity in psychiatry The role of understanding and empathy in the diagnostic process The ethical, legal and social aspects of psychiatric classification Psychiatric Diagnosis & Classification provides a comprehensive picture of the current state of available diagnostic and classificatory systems in psychiatry and the improvements that are needed.

What is Capgras Delusion?

Introduction

Capgras delusion is a psychiatric disorder in which a person holds a delusion that a friend, spouse, parent, or other close family member (or pet) has been replaced by an identical impostor. It is named after Joseph Capgras (1873-1950), a French psychiatrist.

The Capgras delusion is classified as a delusional misidentification syndrome, a class of delusional beliefs that involves the misidentification of people, places, or objects. It can occur in acute, transient, or chronic forms. Cases in which patients hold the belief that time has been “warped” or “substituted” have also been reported.

The delusion most commonly occurs in individuals diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia but has also been seen in brain injury, dementia with Lewy bodies, and other dementia. It presents often in individuals with a neurodegenerative disease, particularly at an older age. It has also been reported as occurring in association with diabetes, hypothyroidism, and migraine attacks. In one isolated case, the Capgras delusion was temporarily induced in a healthy subject by the drug ketamine. It occurs more frequently in females, with a female to male ratio of approximately 3 to 2.

Signs and Symptoms

The following two case reports are examples of the Capgras delusion in a psychiatric setting:

Example 01

Mrs. D, a 74-year-old married housewife, recently discharged from a local hospital after her first psychiatric admission, presented to our facility for a second opinion. At the time of her admission earlier in the year, she had received the diagnosis of atypical psychosis because of her belief that her husband had been replaced by another unrelated man. She refused to sleep with the impostor, locked her bedroom and door at night, asked her son for a gun, and finally fought with the police when attempts were made to hospitalise her. At times she believed her husband was her long deceased father. She easily recognised other family members and would misidentify her husband only.

Example 02

Diane was a 28-year-old single woman who was seen for an evaluation at a day hospital program in preparation for discharge from a psychiatric hospital. This was her third psychiatric admission in the past five years. Always shy and reclusive, Diane first became psychotic at age 23. Following an examination by her physician, she began to worry that the doctor had damaged her internally and that she might never be able to become pregnant. The patient’s condition improved with neuroleptic treatment but deteriorated after discharge because she refused medication. When she was admitted eight months later, she presented with delusions that a man was making exact copies of people—”screens”—and that there were two screens of her, one evil and one good. The diagnosis was schizophrenia with Capgras delusion. She was disheveled and had a bald spot on her scalp from self-mutilation.

Example 03

The following case is an instance of the Capgras delusion resulting from a neurodegenerative disease:

Fred, a 59-year-old man with a high school qualification, was referred for neurological and neuropsychological evaluation because of cognitive and behavioural disturbances. He had worked as the head of a small unit devoted to energy research until a few months before. His past medical and psychiatric history was uneventful. […] Fred’s wife reported that about 15 months from onset he began to see her as a “double” (her words). The first episode occurred one day when, after coming home, Fred asked her where Wilma was. On her surprised answer that she was right there, he firmly denied that she was his wife Wilma, whom he “knew very well as his sons’ mother”, and went on plainly commenting that Wilma had probably gone out and would come back later. […] Fred presented progressive cognitive deterioration characterised both by severity and fast decline. Apart from [Capgras disorder], his neuropsychological presentation was hallmarked by language disturbances suggestive of frontal-executive dysfunction. His cognitive impairment ended up in a severe, all-encompassing frontal syndrome.

Causes

It is generally agreed that the Capgras delusion has a complex and organic basis caused by structural damage to organs and can be better understood by examining neuroanatomical damage associated with the syndrome.

In one of the first papers to consider the cerebral basis of the Capgras delusion, Alexander, Stuss and Benson pointed out in 1979 that the disorder might be related to a combination of frontal lobe damage causing problems with familiarity and right hemisphere damage causing problems with visual recognition.

Further clues to the possible causes of the Capgras delusion were suggested by the study of brain-injured patients who had developed prosopagnosia. In this condition, patients are unable to recognise faces consciously, despite being able to recognise other types of visual objects. However, a 1984 study by Bauer showed that even though conscious face recognition was impaired, patients with the condition showed autonomic arousal (measured by a galvanic skin response measure) to familiar faces, suggesting that there are two pathways to face recognition – one conscious and one unconscious.

In a 1990 paper published in the British Journal of Psychiatry, psychologists Hadyn Ellis and Andy Young hypothesized that patients with Capgras delusion may have a “mirror image” or double dissociation of prosopagnosia, in that their conscious ability to recognise faces was intact, but they might have damage to the system that produces the automatic emotional arousal to familiar faces. This might lead to the experience of recognising someone while feeling something was not “quite right” about them. In 1997, Ellis and his colleagues published a study of five patients with Capgras delusion (all diagnosed with schizophrenia) and confirmed that although they could consciously recognise the faces, they did not show the normal automatic emotional arousal response. The same low level of autonomic response was shown in the presence of strangers. Young (2008) has theorised that this means that patients with the disease experience a “loss” of familiarity, not a “lack” of it. Further evidence for this explanation comes from other studies measuring galvanic skin responses (GSR) to faces. A patient with Capgras delusion showed reduced GSRs to faces in spite of normal face recognition. This theory for the causes of Capgras delusion was summarised in Trends in Cognitive Sciences in 2001.

William Hirstein and Vilayanur S. Ramachandran reported similar findings in a paper published on a single case of a patient with Capgras delusion after brain injury. Ramachandran portrayed this case in his book Phantoms in the Brain[24] and gave a talk about it at TED 2007. Since the patient was capable of feeling emotions and recognising faces but could not feel emotions when recognising familiar faces, Ramachandran hypothesizes that the origin of Capgras syndrome is a disconnection between the temporal cortex, where faces are usually recognised, and the limbic system, involved in emotions. More specifically, he emphasizes the disconnection between the amygdala and the inferotemporal cortex.

In 2010, Hirstein revised this theory to explain why a person with Capgras syndrome would have the particular reaction of not recognizing a familiar person. Hirstein explained the theory as follows:

My current hypothesis on Capgras, which is a more specific version of the earlier position I took in the 1997 article with V. S. Ramachandran. According to my current approach, we represent the people we know well with hybrid representations containing two parts. One part represents them externally: how they look, sound, etc. The other part represents them internally: their personalities, beliefs, characteristic emotions, preferences, etc. Capgras syndrome occurs when the internal portion of the representation is damaged or inaccessible. This produces the impression of someone who looks right on the outside, but seems different on the inside, i.e., an impostor. This gives a much more specific explanation that fits well with what the patients actually say. It corrects a problem with the earlier hypothesis in that there are many possible responses to the lack of an emotion upon seeing someone.

Furthermore, Ramachandran suggests a relationship between the Capgras syndrome and a more general difficulty in linking successive episodic memories because of the crucial role emotion plays in creating memories. Since the patient could not put together memories and feelings, he believed objects in a photograph were new on every viewing, even though they normally should have evoked feelings (e.g. a person close to him, a familiar object, or even himself). Others like Merrin and Silberfarb (1976) have also proposed links between the Capgras syndrome and deficits in aspects of memory. They suggest that an important and familiar person (the usual subject of the delusion) has many layers of visual, auditory, tactile, and experiential memories associated with them, so the Capgras delusion can be understood as a failure of object constancy at a high perceptual level.

Most likely, more than just an impairment of the automatic emotional arousal response is necessary to form the Capgras delusion, as the same pattern has been reported in patients showing no signs of delusions. Ellis suggested that a second factor explains why this unusual experience is transformed into a delusional belief; this second factor is thought to be an impairment in reasoning, although no definitive impairment has been found to explain all cases. Many have argued for the inclusion of the role of patient phenomenology in explanatory models of the Capgras syndrome in order to better understand the mechanisms that enable the creation and maintenance of delusional beliefs.

Capgras syndrome has also been linked to reduplicative paramnesia, another delusional misidentification syndrome in which a person believes a location has been duplicated or relocated. Since these two syndromes are highly associated, it has been proposed that they affect similar areas of the brain and therefore have similar neurological implications. Reduplicative paramnesia is understood to affect the frontal lobe, and thus it is believed that Capgras syndrome is also associated with the frontal lobe. Even if the damage is not directly to the frontal lobe, an interruption of signals between other lobes and the frontal lobe could result in Capgras syndrome.

Diagnosis

Because it is a rare and poorly understood condition, there is no definitive way to diagnose the Capgras delusion. Diagnosis is primarily made on a psychiatric evaluation of the patient, who is most likely brought to a psychiatrist’s attention by a family member or friend believed to be an imposter by the person under the delusion.

Treatment

Treatment has not been well studied and so there is no evidence-based approach. Treatment is generally therapy, often with support of antipsychotic medication.

Brief History

Capgras syndrome is named after Joseph Capgras, a French psychiatrist who first described the disorder in 1923 in his paper co-authored by Jean Reboul-Lachaux, on the case of a French woman, “Madame Macabre,” who complained that corresponding “doubles” had taken the places of her husband and other people she knew. Capgras and Reboul-Lachaux first called the syndrome “l’illusion des sosies”, which can be translated literally as “the illusion of look-alikes.”

The syndrome was initially considered a purely psychiatric disorder, the delusion of a double seen as symptomatic of schizophrenia, and purely a female disorder (though this is now known not to be the case) often noted as a symptom of hysteria. Most of the proposed explanations initially following that of Capgras and Reboul-Lachaux were psychoanalytical in nature. It was not until the 1980s that attention was turned to the usually co-existing organic brain lesions originally thought to be essentially unrelated or accidental. Today, the Capgras syndrome is understood as a neurological disorder, in which the delusion primarily results from organic brain lesions or degeneration.

In Popular Culture

In the Memoirs Found in a Bathtub novel by the Polish writer Stanisław Lem, first published in 1961, the narrator inhabits a paranoid dystopia where nothing is as it seems, chaos seems to rule all events, and everyone is deeply suspicious of everyone. In the end, it is revealed that the world is filled by phantom body doubles.

A central character in Richard Powers’s 2006 novel The Echo Maker suffers from Capgras Delusion subsequent to traumatic brain injury.

The protagonist in the movie Synecdoche, New York, who is named Caden Cotard (played by Philip Seymour Hoffman), goes to see his ex-wife at her apartment, and, as he enters the building, one of the resident call boxes is taped with the name “Capgras”. He is then misidentified as his ex-wife’s cleaning lady, Ellen Bascomb, as he tries to enter the apartment, and, later in the film, he actually comes to play the role of Ellen Bascomb in his own play. Throughout the film, Cotard enlists actor-doubles to play actors, and, as the film progresses, the actor-doubles are in turn then given actors-doubles.

In “Dorado Falls,” an episode from the seventh season of the television series Criminal Minds, a Navy SEAL develops Capgras delusion as the result of an automobile accident. His experience with classified military missions causes him to become extremely paranoid, and he begins killing the people he sees on a regular basis, believing them to have been replaced by duplicates who are plotting against him.