Adolescents, Depression & Low Income Countries

Research Paper Title

Mind the brain gap: The worldwide distribution of neuroimaging research on adolescent depression.


Adolescents comprise one fourth of the world’s population, with about 90% of them living in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

The incidence of depression markedly increases during adolescence, making the disorder a leading cause of disease-related disability in this age group.

However, most research on adolescent depression has been performed in high-income countries (HICs).


To ascertain the extent to which this disparity operates in neuroimaging research, a systematic review of the literature was performed.


A total of 148 studies were identified, with neuroimaging data available for 4,729 adolescents with depression.

When stratified by income group, 122 (82%) studies originated from HICs, while 26 (18%) were conducted in LMICs, for a total of 3,705 and 1,024 adolescents with depression respectively.

A positive Spearman rank correlation was observed between country per capita income and sample size (rs=0.673, p = 0.023).


The results support the previous reports showing a large disparity between the number of studies and the adolescent population per world region.

Future research comparing neuroimaging findings across populations from HICs and LMICs may provide unique insights to enhance our understanding of the neurobiological processes underlying the development of depression.


Battel, L., Cunegatto, F., Viduani, A., Fisher, H.L., Kohrt, B.A., Mondelli, V., Swartz, J.R. & Kieling, C. (2021) Mind the brain gap: The worldwide distribution of neuroimaging research on adolescent depression. Neuroimage. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.117865. Online ahead of print.

Book: A New Understanding of ADHD in Children and Adults

Book Title:

A New Understanding of ADHD in Children and Adults – Executive Function Impairments

Author(s): Thomas E. Brown.

Year: 2013.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Routledge.

Type(s): Hardcover, Paperback, and eBook/Kindle.


For over 100 years, ADHD has been seen as essentially a behaviour disorder. Recent scientific research has developed a new paradigm which recognizes ADHD as a developmental disorder of the cognitive management system of the brain, its executive functions. This cutting-edge book pulls together key ideas of this new understanding of ADHD, explaining them and describing in understandable language scientific research that supports this new model. It addresses questions like:

  • Why can those with ADHD focus very well on some tasks while having great difficulty in focusing on other tasks they recognize as important?
  • How does brain development and functioning of persons with ADHD differ from others?
  • How do impairments of ADHD change from childhood through adolescence and in adulthood?
  • What treatments help to improve ADHD impairments? How do they work? Are they safe?
  • Why do those with ADHD have additional emotional, cognitive, and learning disorders more often than most others?
  • What commonly-held assumptions about ADHD have now been proven wrong by scientific research?

Psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, and other medical and mental health professionals, as well as those affected by ADHD and their families, will find this to be am insightful and invaluable resource.

Book: Understanding, Diagnosing, and Treating ADHD in Children and Adolescents – An Integrative Approach

Book Title:

Understanding, Diagnosing, and Treating ADHD in Children and Adolescents – An Integrative Approach.

Author(s): James A. Incorvaia, Bonnie S. Mark-Goldstein, and Donald Tessmer (Editors).

Year: 1999.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Jason Aronson, Inc.

Type(s): Hardcover and eBook.


When it comes to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, which is too often a cavalier diagnosis of first resort, clinicians can benefit from the range of responsible views on assessment and treatment proffered here. If doctors, therapists, and school personnel were to have only one resource to consult to fully understand AD/HD the problems and the solutions this collection of authoritative perspectives assembled by Doctors Incorvaia, Mark-Goldstein, and Tessmer should be it.