Mental Health and the Burden of Social Stigma

Research Paper Title

Mental health: The burden of social stigma.


The burden of mental health has two facets, social and psychological.

Social stigma causes individuals who suspect to be suffering from a mental condition to conceal it, importantly by seeking care from a non-specialist provider willing to diagnose it as physical disease. In this way, social stigma adds to both the direct and indirect cost of mental health.

A microeconomic model depicting an individual who searches for an accommodating provider leads to the prediction that individuals undertake more search in response to a higher degree of social stigma. However, this holds only in the absence of errors in decision-making, typically as long as mental impairment is not too serious.

While government and employers have an incentive to reduce the burden of social stigma, their efforts therefore need to focus on persons with a degree of mental impairment that still allows them to avoid errors in pursuing their own interest.


Zweifel, P. (2021) Mental health: The burden of social stigma. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management. doi: 10.1002/hpm.3122. Online ahead of print.

Book: Pharmacotherapy Casebook – A Patient-Focused Approach

Book Title:

Pharmacotherapy Casebook – A Patient-Focused Approach.

Author(s): Terry Schwinghammer. Julia Koehler, Jill Borchert, Douglas Slain, and Sharon Park.

Year: 2020.

Edition: Eleventh (11ed).

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education.

Type(s): Paperback and Kindle.


Packed with 157 patient cases, Pharmacotherapy Casebook: A Patient-Focused Approach builds your problem-solving and decision-making skills, so you can identify and resolve the most common drug therapy challenges you will encounter in daily practice.

Its case-based approach is also ideal for PharmD, Nurse Practitioner, and other allied health courses. Providing a consistent, practical approach, this authoritative guide delivers everything you need to master patient communication, care plan development, and documenting interventions. Case chapters are organised into system sections that correspond to those of the companion textbook.

Sharpen your ability to:

  • Identify actual or potential drug therapy problems.
  • Determine the desired therapeutic outcome.
  • Evaluate therapeutic alternatives.
  • Design an optimal individualised pharmacotherapeutic plan.
  • Evaluate the therapeutic outcome
  • Provide patient education.
  • Communicate and implement the therapeutic plan.

Develop expertise in pharmacotherapy decision making with:

  • Realistic patient presentations that include medial history, physical examination, and laboratory data, followed by a series of questions using a systematic, problem-solving approach
  • A broad range of cases – from a single disease state to multiple disease states and drug-related problems
  • Expert coverage that integrates the biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences with therapeutics
  • Appendices containing sample answer to several cases and valuable information on medical abbreviations, laboratory tests, mathematical conversion factors, and anthropometrics