Developing a Longitudinal Trajectory-Based Approach to Investigating Relapse Trend Differences in Mental Health Patients

Research Paper Title

Differences in Temporal Relapse Characteristics Between Affective and Non-affective Psychotic Disorders: Longitudinal Analysis.

Background

Multiple relapses over time are common in both affective and non-affective psychotic disorders. Characterizing the temporal nature of these relapses may be crucial to understanding the underlying neurobiology of relapse.

Methods

Anonymised records of patients with affective and non-affective psychotic disorders were collected from SA Mental Health Data Universe and retrospectively analysed. To characterise the temporal characteristic of their relapses, a relapse trend score was computed using a symbolic series-based approach. A higher score suggests that relapse follows a trend and a lower score suggests relapses are random. Regression models were built to investigate if this score was significantly different between affective and non-affective psychotic disorders.

Results

Logistic regression models showed a significant group difference in relapse trend score between the patient groups. For example, in patients who were hospitalized six or more times, relapse score in affective disorders were 2.6 times higher than non-affective psychotic disorders [OR 2.6, 95% CI (1.8-3.7), p < 0.001].

Discussion

The results imply that the odds of a patient with affective disorder exhibiting a predictable trend in time to relapse were much higher than a patient with recurrent non-affective psychotic disorder. In other words, within recurrent non-affective psychosis group, time to relapse is random.

Conclusions

This study is an initial attempt to develop a longitudinal trajectory-based approach to investigate relapse trend differences in mental health patients. Further investigations using this approach may reflect differences in underlying biological processes between illnesses.

Reference

Immanuel, S.A., Schrader, G. & Bidargaddi, N. (2021) Differences in Temporal Relapse Characteristics Between Affective and Non-affective Psychotic Disorders: Longitudinal Analysis. Frontiers in Psychiatry. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.558056. eCollection 2021.

Book: Insane Medicine: How the Mental Health Industry Creates Damaging Treatment Traps and How you can Escape Them

Book Title:

Insane Medicine: How the Mental Health Industry Creates Damaging Treatment Traps and How you can Escape Them.

Author(s): Sami Timimi.

Year: 2021.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Independently Published.

Type(s): Paperback and Kindle.

Synopsis:

This book digs through the rotten undergrowth which fertilises the mental health industry. The level of failure and deceit is hard to believe. The diagnoses we use are more akin to astrological than medical constructs. We have no medical tests and despite apparent innovations in drugs and therapy, five decades of research has shown no improvement in outcomes from treatment and instead an increase in the numbers categorised as severely mentally ill. Worse, we have convinced the population that they are experiencing pandemics of mental disorders, leading us to fear our ordinary emotions and to scythe away at our natural resilience. There can be no doubt that the mental health industry has caused more harm than good. In this hard hitting book, Dr Timimi, a child psychiatrist with over 30-years-experience as a practicing clinician and researcher, reveals the shocking truth about the unintended harms this industry has caused, both to those in distress and our culture more broadly. He explains how our institutional ideology traps people into becoming long-term patients and proposes a simple theory that explains why more people become long term patients than get better as well as sharing tips on how those caught in this trap can find safe ways back to health and contentment. A revolution in mental health care is inevitable. The current systems have failed and are un-reformable. They will be overthrown. This book will tell you why.

Book: A Practical Guide to Mental Health Problems in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

Book Title:

A Practical Guide to Mental Health Problems in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: It’s Not Just Their Autism!.

Author(s): Alvina Ali, Michelle O’Reilly, and Khalid Karim.

Year: 2013.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Type(s): Paperback and Kindle.

Synopsis:

Exploring the relationship between ASD and mental health difficulties, this book offers practical guidance to help parents and professionals recognise and handle co-morbid conditions, and dispels the myth that they are just a part of autism. The authors cover a wide range of common mental health problems experienced by children with ASD, including Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), anxiety, ADHD, eating disorders, psychosis, stress, tics and depression, and illustrate these issues with case studies. They also provide vital advice in an accessible format and suggest strategies to ease the difficulties which arise from these co-morbid conditions. This book is essential reading for professionals working with children on the autism spectrum and is an accessible and practical resource for parents and carers.

Book: A Guide to Mental Health Issues in Girls and Young Women on the Autism Spectrum

Book Title:

A Guide to Mental Health Issues in Girls and Young Women on the Autism Spectrum: Diagnosis, Intervention and Family Support.

Author(s): Judy Eaton.

Year: 2017.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Type(s): Paperback and Kindle.

Synopsis:

This book addresses the specific mental health needs of girls and young women with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Looking at the ways autism presents differently in girls than in boys, and the mental health conditions that occur most frequently in girls with ASD, this is the essential guide for clinicians and educators on tailoring interventions and support to meet girls’ needs.

Describing the current assessment process for autism diagnosis, the book explains why girls are under- or mis-diagnosed, leading to later mental health issues. It outlines the types of intervention that are particularly helpful for working with girls to reduce anxiety, improve social interaction skills, and manage self-harm. The book also covers how to manage eating disorders and feeding difficulties, focusing on working with girls with sensory processing difficulties. There is advice on how to deal with the emotional impact on parents, carers and families, and the challenges they face when negotiating appropriate psychological and educational support.

Book: Positive Male Mind: Overcoming Mental Health Problems

Book Title:

Positive Male Mind: Overcoming Mental Health Problems (Positive Wellbeing Series).

Author(s): Shaun Davis and Andrew Kinder.

Year: 2018.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: LID Publishing.

Type(s): Hardcover and Kindle.

Synopsis:

Mental health problems affect both men and women, in fact, every one in four of us. However, it has been widely accepted for some time that men are much less likely to seek help from a doctor or mental health specialist, as they traditionally expect themselves to be competitive and successful, tough and self-reliant and can find it difficult to admit that they are feeling fragile and vulnerable. This book aims to build on the current progressive movement by supporting men and those that care about them – be that a partner, friend, family member or colleague – by providing insight, advice, and tips on what can be done at a very practical level to make men’s mental health much more positive.

Book: Positive Mental Health: Overcoming Mental Health Problems

Book Title:

Positive Mental Health: Overcoming Mental Health Problems (Positive Wellbeing Series).

Author(s): Shaun Davis and Andrew Kinder.

Year: 2019.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: LID Publishing.

Type(s): Hardcover and Kindle.

Synopsis:

Whether you work with 10 people, 10,000 people or just yourself, paying attention to mental health in the workplace has never been more important. We all face mental health challenges, regardless of our gender, age or sexual orientation, and too often we can be guilty for taking our mental health for granted. This book aims to build on the current progressive movement around mental health awareness and is in line with current thinking on mental health in the workplace. In this book, the authors provide employees with a resource to develop greater mental health in the workplace and provide employers with a resource to develop greater wellbeing amongst their employees therefore increasing quality, performance, productivity and overall business effectiveness.

Book: A Clinician’s Guide to Mental Health Conditions in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Assessment and Interventions

Book Title:

A Clinician’s Guide to Mental Health Conditions in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Assessment and Interventions.

Author(s): Eddie Chaplin, Debbie Spain, and Jane McCarthy.

Year: 2019.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Type(s): Paperback and Kindle.

Synopsis:

This comprehensive and much-needed guide addresses the issues faced by clinicians in assessing and treating the range of mental health conditions, which can affect adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Its particular focus on adults fills a notable gap in the ASD professional literature, with an extensive array of contributors from across the psychology and healthcare professions.

Covering a wide variety of common co-occurring mental health conditions including mood disorders, anxiety, psychosis, OCD, personality disorders, and eating disorders, this guide also explores broader issues to do with promoting positive mental health and wellbeing. Authoritative and detailed, this is an essential resource for all clinicians and professionals looking to understand and tailor their approach to mental health in autistic adults, and the need for specific methods and strategies to enhance assessment and treatment.

Book: Personality Disorders and Mental Illnesses: The Truth About Psychopaths, Sociopaths, and Narcissists

Book Title:

Personality Disorders and Mental Illnesses: The Truth About Psychopaths, Sociopaths, and Narcissists.

Author(s): Clarence T. Rivers.

Year: 2014.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform.

Type(s): Paperback and Kindle.

Synopsis:

From the ~Unleash the Power of the Mind~ collection and the award winning writer, Clarence T. Rivers, comes a masterful explanation of the mind and the various personality disorders and mental illnesses.

Topics of Discussion

  • Personality Disorders and Mental Illnesses.
  • Psychopathy Defined.
  • Crime and Psychopaths.
  • Psychopaths vs. Sociopaths.
  • Sociopath Defined.
  • The Goal of a Sociopath.
  • The Weaknesses of a Sociopath.
  • Dealing with a Sociopath.
  • Narcissism Defined.
  • The Narcissist in You.
  • The Narcissists of Today.
  • How to Deal with a Narcissist.
  • and much more!

Book: Management of Mental Disorders

Book Title:

Management of Mental Disorders.

Author(s): Dr. Gavin Andrews, Dr. Kimberlie Dean, Dr. Margo Genderson, Dr. Caroline Hunt, Dr. Philip Mitchell, Dr. Perminder Sachdev, and Dr. Julian Trollor.

Year: 2014.

Edition: Fifth (5th).

Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform.

Type(s): Paperback.

Synopsis:

Management of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (MMD5) is an innovative book that provides practical guidance in recognizing and treating mental disorders. The fifth edition has been revised by experts and is a compilation of the best practices in mental health circa 2013. MMD5 outlines the steps required for proper assessment and focuses on how to implement the many effective treatments that are now available. This book also includes resource materials, such as outcome measures, worksheets, and information pamphlets for individuals with mental disorders and their families. MMD5 is designed to complement the skills of busy clinicians and for use as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate students.

The design of the fifth edition – core assessment and clinical skills and sections on the internalising, externalising, psychotic, neurodevelopmental, and neurocognitive clusters of disorders – is based on papers prepared for the discussions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and the International Classification of Diseases, 11th Edition (ICD-11) working groups. These papers presume that disorders within each of these five clusters share genetic risk factors, familiarity, specific environmental risk factors, neural substrates, biomarkers, temperamental antecedents, abnormalities of cognitive or emotional processing, symptom similarity, high rates of comorbidity, course of illness, and treatment response that differ in important ways from disorders within the other four clusters. The clusters are not intended to replace existing diagnostic criteria but rather are used to facilitate the identification of possible relationships between disorders in terms of the risk and clinical factors.

The present edition is the first to make the five-cluster structure of mental disorders explicit. Management of Mental Disorders is a publication of the Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression (CRUfAD), University of New South Wales (UNSW) School of Psychiatry at St Vincent’s Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

CRUfAD has produced treatment protocols for 30 years, first for the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists and then with the Division of Mental Health, World Health Organisation, Geneva. Country specific versions of previous editions of the Management of Mental Disorders were produced for New Zealand, Canada, the United Kingdom, China, and Italy.

Book: 8 Keys to Recovery from an Eating Disorder Workbook

Book Title:

8 Keys to Recovery from an Eating Disorder Workbook (8 Keys to Mental Health).

Author(s): Carolyn Costin and Gwen Schubert Grabb.

Year: 2017.

Edition: First (1st), Workbook Edition.

Publisher: W.W. Norton & Company.

Type(s): Paperback and Kindle.

Synopsis:

8 Keys to Recovery from an Eating Disorder was lauded as a “brave and hopeful book” as well as “remarkably readable.” Now, the authors have returned with a companion workbook-offering all new assignments, strategies, and personal reflections to help those who suffer from an eating disorder heal their relationship to food and their bodies. Clients of Costin and Grabb consistently tell them that knowing they are both recovered is one of the most helpful aspects of their treatment. With this experience as a foundation, the authors bring together years of clinical expertise and invaluable personal testimony, from themselves and others, to the strategies in this book. Readers will get a glimpse of what it’s like to be in therapy with either Carolyn or Gwen. Filled with tried and true practical exercises, goal sheets, food journal forms, clinical anecdotes and stories, readers are guided in exploring their thoughts, feelings, and coping strategies while being encouraged to choose how they want to approach the material. This book is an important resource to anyone living with destructive or self-defeating eating behaviours.