Book: Drop the Disorder! Challenging the Culture of Psychiatric Diagnosis

Book Title:

Drop the Disorder! Challenging the Culture of Psychiatric Diagnosis.

Author(s): Jo Watson.

Year: 2019.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: PCCS Books.

Type(s): Paperback and Kindle.

Synopsis:

In October 2016 Jo Watson hosted the very first A Disorder for Everyone!’ event in Birmingham, with psychologist Dr Lucy Johnstone, to explore (and explode) the culture of psychiatric diagnosis in mental health. To provide a space to continue the debate after the event, Jo also set up the now hugely popular and active Facebook group Drop the Disorder!’.; Since then, they have delivered events in towns and cities across the UK, bringing together activists, survivors and professionals to debate psychiatric diagnosis. How and why does psychiatric diagnosis hold such power? What harm it can do? What are the alternatives to diagnosis, and how it can be positively challenged?; This book takes the themes, energy and passions of the AD4E events – bringing together many of the event speakers with others who have stories to tell and messages to share in the struggle to challenge diagnosis.; This is an essential book for everyone of us who looks beyond the labels.

Book: A Straight Talking Introduction to Psychiatric Diagnosis

Book Title:

A Straight Talking Introduction to Psychiatric Diagnosis (Straight Talking Introductions).

Author(s): Lucy Johnstone.

Year: 2014.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: PCCS Books.

Type(s): Paperback and Kindle.

Synopsis:

Do you still need your psychiatric diagnosis? This book will help you to decide. A revolution is underway in mental health. If the authors of the diagnostic manuals are admitting that psychiatric diagnoses are not supported by evidence, then no one should be forced to accept them. If many mental health workers are openly questioning diagnosis and saying we need a different and better system, then service users and carers should be allowed to do so too. This book is about choice. It is about giving people the information to make up their own minds, and exploring alternatives for those who wish to do so.

Can We Improve Diagnosis of Depression with XGBOOST Machine Learning Model & a Large Biomarkers Dutch Dataset?

Research Paper Title

Improving Diagnosis of Depression With XGBOOST Machine Learning Model and a Large Biomarkers Dutch Dataset ( n = 11,081).

Abstract

Machine Learning has been on the rise and healthcare is no exception to that. In healthcare, mental health is gaining more and more space. The diagnosis of mental disorders is based upon standardised patient interviews with defined set of questions and scales which is a time consuming and costly process.

The objective of the researchers was to apply the machine learning model and to evaluate to see if there is predictive power of biomarkers data to enhance the diagnosis of depression cases.

In this research paper, they aimed to explore the detection of depression cases among the sample of 11,081 Dutch citizen dataset. Most of the earlier studies have balanced datasets wherein the proportion of healthy cases and unhealthy cases are equal but in their study, the dataset contains only 570 cases of self-reported depression out of 11,081 cases hence it is a class imbalance classification problem. The machine learning model built on imbalance dataset gives predictions biased toward majority class hence the model will always predict the case as no depression case even if it is a case of depression.

The researchers used different resampling strategies to address the class imbalance problem. They created multiple samples by under sampling, over sampling, over-under sampling and ROSE sampling techniques to balance the dataset and then, they applied machine learning algorithm “Extreme Gradient Boosting” (XGBoost) on each sample to classify the mental illness cases from healthy cases.

The balanced accuracy, precision, recall and F1 score obtained from over-sampling and over-under sampling were more than 0.90.

Reference

Sharma, A. & Verbeke, W.J.M.I. (2021) Improving Diagnosis of Depression With XGBOOST Machine Learning Model and a Large Biomarkers Dutch Dataset ( n = 11,081). Frontiers in Big Data. doi: 10.3389/fdata.2020.00015. eCollection 2020.

Book: A Straight Talking Introduction to the Power Threat Meaning Framework: An Alternative to Psychiatric Diagnosis

Book Title:

A Straight Talking Introduction to the Power Threat Meaning Framework: An Alternative to Psychiatric Diagnosis (The Straight Talking Introduction Series).

Author(s): Mary Boyle and Lucy Johnstone.

Year: 2020.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: PCCS Books.

Type(s): Paperback and Kindle.

Synopsis:

The current mainstream way of describing psychological and emotional distress assumes it is the result of medical illnesses that need diagnosing and treating. This book summarises a powerful alternative to psychiatric diagnosis that asks not ‘What’s wrong with you?’ but ‘What’s happened to you?’ The Power Threat Meaning Framework (PTMF) was co-produced by a core group of psychologists and service users and launched in 2018, prompting considerable interest in the UK and worldwide. It argues that emotional distress, unusual experiences and many forms of troubled or troubling behaviour are understandable when viewed in the context of a person’s life and circumstances, the cultural and social norms we are expected to live up to and the degree to which we are exposed to trauma, abuse, injustice and inequality. The PTMF offers all of us the tools to create new, hopeful narratives about the reasons for our distress that are not based on psychiatric diagnosis and to find ways forward as individuals, families, social groups and whole societies.

Book: Psychoanalysis and the Cinema- The Imaginary Signifier

Book Title:

Psychoanalysis and the Cinema- The Imaginary Signifier.

Author(s): Christian Metz.

Year: 1984.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan.

Type(s): Hardcover and Paperback.

Synopsis:

In the first half of the book Metz explores a number of aspects of the psychological anchoring of cinema as a social institution.

In the second half, he shifts his approach…to look at the operations of meaning in the film text, at the figures of image and sound concatenation. Thus he is led to consideration of metaphor and metonymy in film, this involving a detailed account of these two figures as they appear in psychoanalysis and linguistics.

Book: Psychiatric Diagnosis and Classification

Book Title:

Psychiatric Diagnosis and Classification.

Author(s): Mario Maj, Wolfgang Gaebel, Juan Jose Lopez-Ibor, and Norman Sartorius (Editors).

Year: 2002.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell.

Type(s): Hardcover and Kindle.

Synopsis:

This book provides an overview of the strengths and limitations of the currently available systems for the diagnosis and classification of mental disorders, in particular the DSM-IV and the ICD-10, and of the prospects for future developments. Among the covered issues are: The impact of biological research The diagnosis of mental disorders in primary care The usefulness and limitations of the concept of comorbidity in psychiatry The role of understanding and empathy in the diagnostic process The ethical, legal and social aspects of psychiatric classification Psychiatric Diagnosis & Classification provides a comprehensive picture of the current state of available diagnostic and classificatory systems in psychiatry and the improvements that are needed.

Is Neuroanalysis a Useful Method for Brain-Related Neuroscientific Diagnosis of Mental Disorders?

Research Paper Title

Neuroanalysis: a method for brain-related neuroscientific diagnosis of mental disorders.

Background

As an Ancient Chinese proverb says “The beginning of wisdom is to call things by their right names” thus we must start calling mental disorders by the names of their underlying brain disturbances. Without knowledge of the causes of mental disorders, their cures will remain elusive.

Methods

Neuroanalysis is a literature-based re-conceptualisation of mental disorders as disturbances of brain organisation. Psychosis and schizophrenia can be re-conceptualised as disturbances to connectivity and hierarchical dynamics in the brain; mood disorders can be re-conceptualised as disturbances to optimization dynamics and free energy in the brain, and finally personality disorders can be re-conceptualised as disordered default-mode networks in the brain.

Results and Conclusions

Knowledge and awareness of the disease algorithms of mental disorders will become critical because powerful technologies for controlling brain activity are developing and becoming available. The time will soon come when psychiatrists will be asked to define the exact ‘algorithms’ of disturbances in their psychiatric patients. Neuroanalysis can be a starting point for the response to that challenge.

Reference

Peled, A. (2020) Neuroanalysis: a method for brain-related neuroscientific diagnosis of mental disorders. Medical Hypotheses. 78(5), pp.636-640. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2012.01.043. Epub 2012 Feb 18.

Book: Mental: Everything You Never Knew You Needed to Know about Mental Health

Book Title:

Mental: Everything You Never Knew You Needed to Know about Mental Health.

Author(s): Dr Steve Ellen and Catherine Deveny.

Year: 2018.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Anima.

Type(s): Hardcover, Paperback, Audiobook, and Kindle.

Synopsis:

How do we define mental illness? What does a diagnosis mean? What should you ask your doctor before you begin treatment? Are there alternatives to medication? What does the research show actually works?

Practitioner and professor of psychiatry Dr Steve Ellen and popular comedian Catherine Deveny combine forces to demystify the world of mental health. Sharing their personal experiences of mental illness and an insider perspective on psychiatry, they unpack the current knowledge about conditions and treatments coveing everything from depression and anxiety to schizophrenia, personality disorders and substance abuse.

Whether you have a mental illness or support someone who does, Mental offers clear practical help, empowering you with an arsenal of tips and techniques to help build your resilience.

Book: The ADHD Explosion

Book Title:

The ADHD Explosion: Myths, Medication, Money, and Today’s Push for Performance.

Author(s): Stephen P. Hinshaw and Richard M. Scheffler.

Year: 2014.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Oxford University Press.

Type(s): Hardcover and Kindle.

Synopsis:

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most controversial and misunderstood medical conditions today.

With skyrocketing rates of diagnosis and medication treatment, it has generated a firestorm of controversy.

Alarming questions have been raised about ADHD in recent years:

  • Why are over 10% of children and adolescents in the US now diagnosed with ADHD, with projected rates quickly rising?
  • Why do over two-thirds of those diagnosed with ADHD receive medication?
  • In some southern states, why are boys diagnosed at rates of almost one in three?
  • What is causing the fast-rising diagnosis and medication of adults? Why are over a quarter of all college students using stimulants for academic performance?
  • What drives the current ADHD “tsunami” – is it parents, clinicians, schools, culture, the healthcare system, or Big Pharma? When will it end?
  • Can we trust the stories we read and hear about ADHD, even in major media outlets?

The ADHD Explosion and Today’s Push for Performance uniquely blends clinical wisdom, current science, new information on medical and school policy, and global trends to debunk myths and set the record straight.

Hinshaw and Scheffler describe the origins of ADHD and its huge costs to society; the science regarding causes as well as medication and behavioural treatment; and the major variation in diagnosis and treatment across the US, highlighting the key roles of educational policy and high-stakes testing. Dealing directly with stimulants as “smart pills,” they describe the epidemic of medicalisation, arguing that accurate diagnosis and well-monitored care could ease the staggering economic burden linked to ADHD.

In novel ways, they unravel the many poignant issues facing children, teachers, clinicians, and family members who contend with ADHD each day. The recommendations in this book can improve the quality of life for those touched by ADHD and potentially improve the productivity and safety of all society.

Do Psychiatric Conditions Shift Over Time?

Diagnoses for mental health conditions often morph into each other, suggesting that psychiatry’s reliance on specific diagnoses may be misguided.

A team led by Avshalom Caspi and Terrie Moffitt (2020) at Duke University, North Carolina, analysed data from the Dunedin Birth Cohort Study, which follows a nationally representative group of more
than 1,000 New Zealanders born in 1972 and 1973.

As the participants in the Dunedin Study have grown up, they have been assessed nine times to measure aspects of their health and behaviour, including their mental health. Caspi and Moffitt’s team found that by the age of 45, 86% of participants had met the criteria for at least one psychiatric diagnosis in one assessment. This did not mean that they had received a psychiatric diagnosis, but if they had seen a psychiatrist, they could have been given one.

A third of the cohort met the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis before they reached the age of 15. Yet over time, people’s mental health usually shifted into a different category of psychiatric conditions.

This could suggest that an excessive focus on a current diagnosis is short-sighted and that therapy should not just address the presenting disorder, but must build fundamental skills for maintaining general mental health.

However, one must caution against ditching diagnostic categories as some disorders are linked to specific causes and respond better to certain treatments than others. It could do harm to ignore these distinctions, at least in some cases.

Reference

Caspi, A., Houts, R.M., Ambler, A., Danese, A., Elliott, M.L., Hariri, A., Harrington, H., Hogan, S., Poulton, R., Ramrakha, S., Rasmussen, L.J.H., Reuben, A., Richmond-Rakerd, L., Sugden, K., Wertz, J., Williams, B.S. & Moffitt, T.E. (2020) Longitudinal Assessment of Mental Health Disorders and Comorbidities Across 4 Decades Among Participants in the Dunedin Birth Cohort Study. JAMA Network Open. 3(4), pp.e203221. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3221