What is Exercise Addiction?


Exercise addiction is a state characterised by a compulsive engagement in any form of physical exercise, despite negative consequences.

Refer to Anorexia Athletica and Exercise Bulimia.

While regular exercise is generally a healthy activity, exercise addiction generally involves performing excessive amounts of exercise to the detriment of physical health, spending too much time exercising to the detriment of personal and professional life, and exercising regardless of physical injury. It may also involve a state of dependence upon regular exercise which involves the occurrence of severe withdrawal symptoms when the individual is unable to exercise. Differentiating between addictive and healthy exercise behaviours is difficult but there are key factors in determining which category a person may fall into. Exercise addiction shows a high comorbidity with eating disorders.

Exercise addiction is not listed as a disorder in the fourth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). This type of addiction can be classified under a behavioural addiction in which a person’s behaviour becomes obsessive, compulsive, and/or causes dysfunction in a person’s life. The next revision of the DSM (DSM-5) will include an addictions and related disorders section; gambling is the only non-substance addiction that is likely to be included. Other non-substance addictions, such as exercise addiction, are being researched but their inclusion is undetermined.


A concrete classification of exercise addiction has proven to be difficult due to the lack of a specific and widely accepted diagnostic model. Most interpretations of addiction have traditionally been limited to drugs and alcohol, which makes it even more difficult to identify addictive tendencies in exercise. While excessive exercise is the overarching theme with exercise addiction, the term also includes a variety of symptoms like withdrawal, “exercise buzz”, and impaired physical function. Excessive exercise has been classified in different ways; sometimes as an addiction and sometimes as a more general compulsive behaviour. Psychiatric case studies have shown that exaggerated exercise could lead to negligence of work and family life. With an addiction, individuals become “hooked” to the feeling of euphoria and pleasure that exercise provides. This pleasure keeps the individual from stopping and leads to excessive exercise. With a compulsion people often do not necessarily enjoy repeating certain tasks, as they may feel like performing it will fulfil a duty that is required of them. There are many opinions on whether concrete diagnostic criteria should be created for this type of addiction. Some say preoccupation with exercise that causes significant impairment in a person’s life, not due to another disorder, may be enough criteria to label this disorder. Others say there is not enough information about exercise addiction to develop diagnostic criteria. As of 2007, the term “excessive exercise” continues to be used while the “exercise addiction” model continues to be debated.

Three main types of disorders are associated with excessive exercise:

  • Anorexia athletica (obligatory exercise):
    • When an individual feels compelled to exercise beyond the point of benefitting one’s body.
    • Individuals will participate in athletic activities regardless of pain, injury, illness, etc., and will try to arrange their lives in order to maximise workout time.
  • Exercise bulimia:
    • When an individual has binge eating sessions that are followed by periods of high-intensity exercise.
  • Body dysmorphic disorder:
    • When an individual is obsessed with parts of their body and perceive them to be different or odd.
    • These individuals will create highly regimented routines in order to improve their perception of the “flawed” body part.

Signs and Symptoms

Five indicators of exercise addiction are:

  • An increase in exercise that may be labelled as detrimental, or becomes harmful.
  • A desire to experience euphoria; exercise may be increased as tolerance of the euphoric state increases.
  • Not participating in physical activity will cause dysfunction in one’s daily life.
  • Severe withdrawal symptoms following exercise deprivation including anxiety, restlessness, depression, guilt, tension, discomfort, loss of appetite, sleeplessness, and headaches.
  • Exercising through trauma and despite physical injuries.

Key differences between healthy and addictive levels of exercise include the presence of withdrawal symptoms when exercise is stopped as well as the addictive properties exercise may have leading to a dependence on exercise.

Those who succumb to exercise addiction may experience overtraining, which is best defined as a “condition of poor adaptation to a chronic period of excessive stress caused by a physical exertion, resulting in the development of the syndrome, compromising the health and sports performance”.

Overtraining includes one or more of the following:

  • Persistent muscle soreness.
  • Elevated resting heart rate.
  • Increased susceptibility to infections.
  • Increased incidence of injuries.
  • Insomnia.
  • Decreased appetite.
  • Weight loss.
  • Impaired performance.
  • Decreased motor coordination and force production.

Exercise addiction may also lead to mood disturbances. Those who undergo rigorous training without adequate rest are more likely to experience depression, anger, fatigue and confusion.

In addition, excessive training may cause exhaustion of the autonomic nervous system. Some symptoms include decreased total testosterone level, an imbalance between testosterone and cortisol, decreased sympathetic tone, and decreased exercise-induced lactate. These chemical balances can lead to premature osteoporosis, where the lack of testosterone accelerates bone loss, and elevated levels of cortisol alters calcium and bone metabolism by “increasing bone reabsorption and decreasing bone formation or intestinal absorption of calcium”. Calcium undernutrition may eventually occur, accelerating premature osteoporosis.


As of 2016, the mechanisms involved in the development of an exercise addiction, associated with the transition from healthy committed exercise to compulsive exercise, are unknown.


Different assessment tools can be used to determine if an individual is addicted to exercise. Most tools used to determine risk for exercise addiction are modified tools that have been used for assessing other behavioural addictions. Tools for determining eating disorders can also show a high risk for exercise addiction.

The Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire was created by Thompson and Pasman in 1991, consisting of 20 questions on exercise habits and attitudes toward exercise and body image. Patients respond to statements on a scale of 1 (never) to 4 (always). This questionnaire aided in the development of another assessment tool, the Exercise Addiction Inventory.

The Exercise Addiction Inventory was developed by Terry et al in 2004. This inventory was developed as a self-report to examine an individual’s beliefs toward exercise. The inventory is made up of six statements in relation to the perception of exercise, concerning: the importance of exercise to the individual, relationship conflicts due to exercise, how mood changes with exercise, the amount of time spent exercising, the outcome of missing a workout, and the effects of decreasing physical activity. Individuals are asked to rate each statement from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). If an individual scores above 24 they are said to be at-risk for exercise addiction.


Behavioural addiction and substance abuse disorders are treated similarly; treatment options include exposure and response prevention. No medications have been approved for the treatment of behavioural addictions. Studies have shown promise in the use of glutamatergic altering drugs to treat addictions other than exercise. Exercise addictions comorbid in patients with an eating disorder may be treated through psychotherapy involving education, behavioural interventions, and a strengthened family support structure. In treating the eating disorder, obsessions and compulsions produced by obscured body image ideals will also be treated, this includes exercise addiction.


Most research has focused on adult population or on college students, but little is known about epidemiology of behavioural addictions in adolescence. A study conducted by Villella et al looked at a group of students and the prevalence of various addictions. His results showed exercise addiction was the second most prevalent, after compulsive buying. High risk groups that appear to be addicted to exercise include athletes in sports encouraging thinness or appearance standards, young and middle-age women, and young men.


Individuals with exercise addiction may put exercise above family and friends, work, injuries, and other social activities. If not identified and treated, an exercise addiction may lead to a significant decline in one’s health.


An addiction, by definition, includes repeated compulsive behaviours that negatively affect daily living. There are two ways to classify addictive behaviours: substance addiction and process addiction. An exercise addiction is a type of process addiction, in which an individual’s mood toward a certain event becomes dependent on addictive behaviours. Many educational, occupational, and social activities are stopped due to excessive exercising. Depression may develop if exercise is neglected or may result from reoccurring physical injuries that limit exercise. Exercise addiction is often related to obsessive-compulsive disorder as exercise addicts may have obsessions or compulsions toward physical activity. Exercise addiction is also commonly associated with eating disorders as a secondary symptom of bulimia or anorexia nervosa. Approximately 39-48% of people that have an eating disorder are also addicted to exercise. When diagnosing bulimia, exercise addiction is referred to as a compensatory behaviour and indicator of the underlying disorder. Research also shows exercise addiction influences not only the development of eating disorders but also their maintenance.

Animal Models

As with many human diseases and disorders, animal models are sometimes used to study addiction. For example, voluntary wheel running by rodents, viewed as a model of human voluntary exercise, has been used to study withdrawal symptoms, such as changes in blood pressure, when wheel access is removed from mice.

What is Exercise Bulimia?


Exercise bulimia is a subset of the psychological disorder called bulimia in which a person is compelled to exercise in an effort aimed at burning the calories of food energy and fat reserves to an excessive level that negatively affects their health.

The damage normally occurs through not giving the body adequate rest for athletic recovery compared to their exercise levels, leading to increasing levels of disrepair. If the person eats a normally healthy and adequate diet but exercises in levels they know require higher levels of nutrition, this can also be seen as a form of anorexia.

Refer to Anorexia Athletica and Exercise Addiction.

Signs and Symptoms

Exercise Bulimia can sometimes go unnoticed because exercise is something that is seen as healthy, but just because a person looks healthy does not mean they are. Compulsive exercisers will often schedule their lives around exercise just as those with eating disorders schedule their lives around eating (or not eating). Other indications of compulsive exercise are:

  • Missing work, school and other important events in order to work out.
  • Working out with an injury or while sick.
  • Working out secretly or away from noticeable sight.
  • Becoming unusually depressed if unable to exercise.
  • Working out for hours at a time each day.
  • Not taking any rest or recovery days.
  • Defining self-worth in terms of performance.
  • Justifies excessive behaviour by defining self as a “special” elite athlete.
  • Depression or agitation when unable to work out.
  • Amenorrhea, the stop of a woman’s menstrual cycle.
  • Isolation from others while working out.
  • Lack of interest in friends and eating.
  • Lack of sleep.

What is Anorexia Athletica?


Anorexia athletica (sports anorexia), also referred to as hypergymnasia, is an eating disorder characterized by excessive and compulsive exercise.

Refer to Exercise Bulimia and Exercise Addiction.

An athlete suffering from sports anorexia tends to over exercise to give themselves a sense of having control over their body. Most often, people with the disorder tend to feel they have no control over their lives other than their control of food and exercise. In actuality, they have no control; they cannot stop exercising or regulating food intake without feeling guilty. Generally, once the activity is started, it is difficult to stop because the person is seen as being addicted to the method adopted.

Anorexia athletica is used to refer to “a disorder for athletes who engage in at least one unhealthy method of weight control”. Unlike anorexia nervosa, anorexia athletica does not have as much to do with body image as it does with performance. Athletes usually begin by eating more ‘healthy’ foods, as well as increasing their training, but when people feel like that is not enough and start working out excessively and cutting back their caloric intake until it becomes a psychological disorder.

Hypergymnasia and anorexia athletica are not recognised as mental disorders in any of the medical manuals, such as the ICD-10 or the DSM-IV, nor is it part of the proposed revision of this manual, the DSM-5. If this were the case, there would be a 10-15% increase in mental disorders in sports. A study at the Anorexia Centre at Huddinge Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden showed that sports anorexia can result in mental disorders. The anxiety, stress, and pressure people with sports anorexia put on themselves (as well as the pressure parents and coaches can put on the athlete) can cause mental disorders.

Signs and Symptoms

Someone with anorexia athletica can experience numerous signs and symptoms, a few of which are listed below. The seriousness of the symptoms is dependent on the individual, and more symptoms come with the length the athlete excessively exercises. If anorexia athletica persists for long enough, the individual can become malnourished, which eventually leads to further complications in major organs such as the liver, kidney, heart and brain.

  • Excessive exercise.
  • Obsessive behaviour with calories, fat, and weight.
  • Self-worth is based on physical performance.
  • Enjoyment of sports is diminished or gone.
  • Denying the over exercising is a problem.


There is not one single cause of anorexia athletica, but many factors that are involved in the disorder. Research has shown that an area on chromosome 1 is linked to anorexia nervosa-sports anorexia. Thus, a person is more likely to have anorexia athletica if someone in their immediate family has had the disorder. Not only genetics, but also the environment a person is in, has a major impact on the disorder. Coaches and parents often suggest to their athlete/child to lose weight in order to perform better. Sports such as figure skating, ballet, and gymnastics promote both male and female athletes to have a thin figure. Females who partake in sports can suffer from a syndrome known as the triad. The media play a very significant role in pressuring athletes to have the perfect body and to be thin, which can also trigger sports anorexia.


According to the National Eating Disorder Information Centre (NEDIC), the first step for someone going through anorexia athletica is to realise their eating and exercise habits are hurting them. Once an individual has realised they have a disorder, an appointment should be made with the family doctor. A family doctor can advise further medical attention if needed. With sports anorexia, it is important to go to a dietitian as well as a personal trainer. People with sports anorexia need to learn the balance between exercise and caloric intake.

Book: The Addiction Treatment Planner: Includes DSM-5 Updates

Book Title:

The Addiction Treatment Planner: Includes DSM-5 Updates.

Author(s): Robert R. Perkinson, Arthur E. Jongsma, and Timothy J. Bruce.

Year: 2014.

Edition: Fifth (5th).

Publisher: Wiley.

Type(s): Paperback and Kindle.


The Addiction Treatment Planner, Fifth Edition provides all the elements necessary to quickly and easily develop formal treatment plans that satisfy the demands of HMOs, managed care companies, third-party payors, and state and federal agencies.

  • New edition features empirically supported, evidence-based treatment interventions.
  • Organised around 43 behaviourally based presenting problems, including substance use, eating disorders, schizoid traits, and others.
  • Over 1,000 prewritten treatment goals, objectives, and interventions – plus space to record your own treatment plan options.
  • Easy-to-use reference format helps locate treatment plan components by behavioural problem.
  • Includes a sample treatment plan that conforms to the requirements of most third-party payors and accrediting agencies including CARF, The Joint Commission (TJC), COA, and the NCQA.

Book: Clean – Overcoming Addiction And Ending America’s Greatest Tragedy

Book Title:

Clean – Overcoming Addiction And Ending America’s Greatest Tragedy.

Author(s): David Sheff.

Year: 2014.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Type(s): hardcover, Paperback, and Audiobook.


Addiction is a preventable, treatable disease, not a moral failing.

As with other illnesses, the approaches most likely to work are based on science – not on faith, tradition, contrition, or wishful thinking. These facts are the foundation of Clean.

The existing addiction treatments, including Twelve Step programmes and rehabs, have helped some, but they have failed to help many more.

To discover why, David Sheff spent time with scores of scientists, doctors, counsellors, and addicts and their families, and explored the latest research in psychology, neuroscience, and medicine.

In Clean, he reveals how addiction really works, and how we can combat it.

Book: The Age of Addiction – How Bad Habits Became Big Business


Book Title:

The Age of Addiction – How Bad Habits Became Big Business.

Author(s): David T. Courtwright.

Year: 2019.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Harvard University Press..

Type(s): Hardcover, Paperback, Audiobook, and Kindle.


We live in an age of addiction, from compulsive gaming and shopping to binge eating and opioid abuse.

Sugar can be as habit-forming as cocaine, researchers tell us, and social media apps are deliberately hooking our kids.

But what can we do to resist temptations that insidiously rewire our brains? A renowned expert on addiction, David Courtwright reveals how global enterprises have both created and catered to our addictions.

The Age of Addiction chronicles the triumph of what he calls “limbic capitalism,” the growing network of competitive businesses targeting the brain pathways responsible for feeling, motivation, and long-term memory.

Is there a Link between Exercise Addiction & Eating Disorders?

Research Paper Title

A comparative meta-analysis of the prevalence of exercise addiction in adults with and without indicated eating disorders.


Exercise addiction is associated with multiple adverse outcomes and can be classified as co-occurring with an eating disorder, or a primary condition with no indication of eating disorders.

The researchers conducted a meta-analysis exploring the prevalence of exercise addiction in adults with and without indicated eating disorders.


A systematic review of major databases and grey literature was undertaken from inception to 30/04/2019.

Studies reporting prevalence of exercise addiction with and without indicated eating disorders in adults were identified.

A random effect meta-analysis was undertaken, calculating odds ratios for exercise addiction with versus without indicated eating disorders.


Nine studies with a total sample of 2140 participants (mean age = 25.06; 70.6% female) were included.

Within these, 1732 participants did not show indicated eating disorders (mean age = 26.4; 63.0% female) and 408 had indicated eating disorders (mean age = 23.46; 79.2% female).

The odds ratio for exercise addiction in populations with versus without indicated eating disorders was 3.71 (95% CI 2.00-6.89; I2 = 81; p  ≤ 0.001).

Exercise addiction prevalence in both populations differed according to the measurement instrument used.


Exercise addiction occurs more than three and a half times as often as a comorbidity to an eating disorder than in people without an indicated eating disorder.

The creation of a measurement tool able to identify exercise addiction risk in both populations would benefit researchers and practitioners by easily classifying samples.


Trott, M., Jackson, S.E., Firth, J., Jacob, L., Grabovac, I., Mistry, A., Stubbs, B. & Smith, L. (2020) A comparative meta-analysis of the prevalence of exercise addiction in adults with and without indicated eating disorders. Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD. doi: 10.1007/s40519-019-00842-1. [Epub ahead of print].