Book: Stahl’s Illustrated Substance Use and Impulsive Disorders

Book Title:

Stahl’s Illustrated Substance Use and Impulsive Disorders.

Author(s): Stephen M. Stahl and Meghan M. Grady.

Year: 2012.

Edition: First (1st), Illustrated Edition.

Publisher: Cambridge University Press.

Type(s): Paperback and Kindle.

Synopsis:

All of the titles in the Stahl’s Illustrated series are designed to be fun. Concepts are illustrated by full-colour images that will be familiar to readers of Stahl’s Essential Psychopharmacology, 3rd edition, and The Prescriber’s Guide. The visual learner will find that these books make psychopharmacology concepts easy to master, while the non-visual learner will enjoy a shortened text version of complex psychopharmacology concepts. Each chapter builds on previous ones, synthesizing information from basic biology and diagnostics to building treatment plans and dealing with complications and comorbidities. Novices may want to begin by looking through all the graphics and gaining a feel for the visual vocabulary. Readers more familiar with these topics should find that going back and forth between images and text provides an interaction with which to vividly conceptualize complex pharmacologies. Each book ends with a Suggested Reading section to help guide more in-depth learning about particular concepts.

Book: Best Practices and Barriers to Engaging People with Substance Use Disorders in Treatment

Book Title:

Best Practices and Barriers to Engaging People with Substance Use Disorders in Treatment.

Author(s): Peggy O’Brien, Erika Crable, Catherine Fullerton, and Lauren Hughey.

Year: March 2019.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: US Department of Health and Human Services.

Type(s): eBook.

Synopsis:

In 2015, 20.8 million people aged 12 years or older (7.8% of the United States population) had a substance use disorder (SUD) in the previous year. Approximately 75% of this group, or 15.7 million Americans, had an alcohol use disorder,
2.0 million had a prescription opioid use disorder (OUD), and about 0.6 million had a heroin use disorder.

Since 1999, opioid-related overdose deaths in the United States have quadrupled, with more than 15,000 individuals experiencing prescription drug-related overdose deaths in 2015. Even though evidence-based SUD treatments are effective, rates of treatment receipt are quite low. In 2015, only 18% of the population with SUDs, or 3.7 million people, received SUD treatment – a number that has not increased significantly since 2002.

Only about 48% of patients who enter SUD treatment actually complete it.

You can access the book, for free, here.

Book: Approaches to Drug Abuse Counselling

Book Title:

Approaches to Drug Abuse Counselling.

Author(s): National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).

Year: 2000.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: US Government Printing Office.

Type(s): eBook.

Synopsis:

Dual disorders recovery counselling (DDRC) is an integrated approach to treatment of patients with drug use disorders and comorbid psychiatric disorders.

The DDRC model, which integrates individual and group addiction counselling approaches with psychiatric interventions, attempts to balance the focus of treatment so that both the patient’s addiction and psychiatric issues are addressed.

The DDRC model is based on the assumption that there are several treatment phases that patients may go through.

You can access the book, for free, here.

Book: Integrating Behavioural Therapies with Medications in the Treatment of Drug Dependence

Book Title:

Integrating Behavioural Therapies With Medications in the Treatment of Drug Dependence (National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series).

Author(s): Lisa Simon Onken (PhD), Jack D. Blaine (MD), and John J. Boren (PhD.

Year: 1995.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: US Government Printing Office.

Type(s): eBook.

Synopsis:

It is no revelation that drug dependence is a complex problem with behavioural, cognitive, psychosocial, and biological dimensions and may be treated with behavioural therapy (including behaviour therapy, psychotherapy, and counselling), and, where available, pharmacotherapy.

Drug use can be reduced behaviourally with appropriate manipulation of reinforcements within the environment (Higgins et al. 1993). Continued improvements over time in drug use can be initiated by cognitive behavioural psychotherapies to modify cognitions that perpetuate drug use (Carroll et al., submitted for publication), and a reduced likelihood of
relapse has been engendered by specialised training approaches (Rohsenow et al., in press).

Methadone, of course, has long been recognised as an effective pharmacotherapy to reduce opiate use, and its biological mechanism of action is well understood.

You can access the book, for free, here.

Book: Psychotherapy And Counselling In The Treatment Of Drug Abuse

Book Title:

Psychotherapy And Counselling In The Treatment Of Drug Abuse (National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series).

Author(s): Lisa Simon Onken (PhD) and Jack D. Blaine (MD).

Year: 1990.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: US Government Printing Office.

Type(s): eBook.

Synopsis:

Drug abuse treatment occurs in a multitude of forms. It may be provided in outpatient or inpatient settings, be publicly or privately funded, and mayor may not involve the administration of medication. The differences among the philosophies of, and the services provided in, various drug abuse treatment programmes may be enormous. What is remarkable is that some form of drug abuse counselling or psychotherapy is almost invariably a part of every type of comprehensive drug abuse treatment. Individual therapy or counselling is available in about 99% of the drug-free, methadone-maintenance, and multiple-modality drug abuse treatment units in this country (National Drug and Alcoholism Treatment Unit Survey 1982). It is also available in approximately 97% of the detoxification units.

You can access the book, for free, here.

Schizophrenia & Smoking Traits

Research Paper Title

Colocalisation of association signals at nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes between schizophrenia and smoking traits.

Background

Epidemiological data suggest that smoking may be a risk factor for schizophrenia (SCZ), but more evidence is needed. Two regions coding nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAchR) subunits, atCHRNA2 and the CHRNA5/A3/B4 cluster, were associated with SCZ in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Additionally, a signal at CHRNA4 is near significance. CHRNA2 was also associated with cannabis use disorder (CUD). These regions were also associated with smoking behaviours. If tobacco is a risk factor, the GWAS signals at smoking behaviours and SCZ have to be due to the same causal variants, i.e. they have to colocalise, although colocalisation does not necessarily imply causality. Here, we present colocalisation analysis at these loci between SCZ and smoking behaviours.

Methods

The Bayesian approach implemented in coloc was used to check for posterior probability of colocalisation versus independent signals at the three loci with some evidence of association with SCZ and smoking behaviours, using GWAS summary statistics. Colocalisation was also assessed for positive control traits and CUD. Three different sensibility analyses were used to confirm the results. A visualisation tool, LocusCompare, was used to facilitate interpretation of the coloc results.

Results

Evidence for colocalisation of GWAS signals between SCZ and smoking behaviours was found for CHRNA2. Evidence for independent causal variants was found for the other two loci. CUD GWAS signal at CHRNA2 colocalises with SCZ and smoking behaviours.

Conclusions

Overall, the results indicate that the association between some nAchR subunit genes and SCZ cannot be solely explained by their effect on smoking behaviours.

Reference

Al-Soufi, L. & Costas, J. (2021) Colocalization of association signals at nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes between schizophrenia and smoking traits. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2021.108517. Online ahead of print.

Book: The Age of Addiction – How Bad Habits Became Big Business

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Book Title:

The Age of Addiction – How Bad Habits Became Big Business.

Author(s): David T. Courtwright.

Year: 2019.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Harvard University Press..

Type(s): Hardcover, Paperback, Audiobook, and Kindle.

Synopsis:

We live in an age of addiction, from compulsive gaming and shopping to binge eating and opioid abuse.

Sugar can be as habit-forming as cocaine, researchers tell us, and social media apps are deliberately hooking our kids.

But what can we do to resist temptations that insidiously rewire our brains? A renowned expert on addiction, David Courtwright reveals how global enterprises have both created and catered to our addictions.

The Age of Addiction chronicles the triumph of what he calls “limbic capitalism,” the growing network of competitive businesses targeting the brain pathways responsible for feeling, motivation, and long-term memory.

Does COVID-19 Fear, Mental Health, and Substance Misuse Conditions among University Social Work Students Ignore Nationality?

Research Paper Title

COVID-19 Fear, Mental Health, and Substance Misuse Conditions Among University Social Work Students in Israel and Russia.

Background

In December 2019, cases of pneumonia of unknown etiology but with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and other serious complications were reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. One month later, a novel coronavirus was identified by the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from the throat swab sample of a patient and was subsequently named “COVID-19” by the World Health Organisation (WHO) (Nanshan et al. 2020). At the end of June 2020, approximately 500,000 deaths worldwide have been linked to COVID-19 (Johns Hopkins University of Medicine 2020).

Following many cases reported by Chinese authorities, the WHO declared the new coronavirus pneumonia epidemic a public health emergency of international concern. Among the early virus characteristics reported were strong human-to-human transmission and fast transmission speed, mainly spread through respiratory droplets and contact (Nanshan et al. 2020). In response, Chinese authorities moved to a strategy of regional blockade aimed to stop the spread of the epidemic (Chen et al. 2020) as well as quarantine. “Quarantine” is one of the oldest and most effective tools of controlling communicable disease outbreaks. It means the restriction of movement among people presumed to have been exposed to a contagious disease but are not ill, either because they did not become infected or because they are still in the incubation period. The second tool that is widely used to prevent the spread of the pandemic is “social distancing.” It is designed to reduce interactions between people in a community where individuals may be infectious but have not yet been identified, and hence not yet isolated (Burdorf et al. 2020).

Once countries dealing with COVID-19 implemented quarantine and social distancing, the need for social workers and other health care professionals greatly increased due to mental health problems experienced by the general public. Studies have found that widespread outbreaks of infectious diseases, such as COVID-19, are associated with psychological distress and mental illness (Bao et al. 2020). Such conditions include stress, anxiety, depression, insomnia, anger, fear, stigma (Lin 2020; Pakpour and Griffiths 2020; Torales et al. 2020), and substance misuse (Baillie et al. 2010) on individual, family, community, and national levels (Harper et al. 2020; Kang et al. 2020). Older adults, especially with chronic health conditions, have been identified as extremely vulnerable to COVID-19. However, those dealing with the infection, such as medical and allied health personnel including those affiliated with social work, have received considerable attention for their “front line” efforts combating this disaster.

Israel and Russia pursue a similar policy to combat the COVID-19: strict quarantine or self-isolation, the abolition of all events with a large number of people, the closure of schools and universities, the cessation of aviation and railway travel and closed borders, the mandatory use of masks, etc. At the end of June 2020, there were 22,800 confirmed cases and 314 deaths in Israel and in Russia, 626,779 cases and 8958 deaths (JHUM 2020). Based on the dearth of information about student mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic (Grubic et al. 2020), The researchers hypothesized fear, mental health, and substance misuse among university students are similar regardless of nationality. For this purpose, social work students from Israel and Russia were studied.

Reference

Yehudai, M., Bendar, S., Gritsenko, V., Konstantinov, V., Reznik, A. & Isralowitz, R. (2020) COVID-19 Fear, Mental Health, and Substance Misuse Conditions Among University Social Work Students in Israel and Russia. International Journal of Mental Health Addiction. 1–8.
doi: 10.1007/s11469-020-00360-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Linking Job Skills Training & Substance Misuse

Research Paper Title

Spillover Effects of Job Skills Training on Substance Misuse Among Low-Income Youths With Employment Barriers: A Longitudinal Cohort Study.

Background

To examine spillover effects of job skills training (vs basic services only [e.g. adult basic education, job readiness training]) on substance misuse among low-income youths with employment barriers.

Methods

Data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, a longitudinal cohort study of youths born between 1980 and 1984 in the United States.

Based on respondents’ reports of substance misuse (past-month binge drinking and past-year marijuana and other illicit drug use) from 2000 to 2016, the researchers estimated substance misuse trajectories of job skills training (n = 317) and basic services (n = 264) groups.

They accounted for potential selection bias by using inverse probability of treatment weighting.

Results

Compared with the basic services group, the job skills training group showed notable long-term reductions in its illicit drug misuse trajectory, translating to a 56.9% decrease in prevalence rates from 6.5% in year 0 to 2.8% in year 16.

Conclusions

Job skills training can be an important service component for reducing substance misuse and improving employment outcomes among youths with economic disadvantages and employment barriers.

Reference

Oh, S., DiNitto, D.M. & Powers, D.A. (2020) Spillover Effects of Job Skills Training on Substance Misuse Among Low-Income Youths With Employment Barriers: A Longitudinal Cohort Study. American Journal of Public Health. 110(6), pp.900-906. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2020.305631. Epub 2020 Apr 16.