Linking Eating Habits & Sleep Patterns in Adolescents with Symptoms of Depression

Research Paper Title

Eating habits and sleep patterns of adolescents with depression symptoms in Mumbai, India.


Adolescents with depression engage in unhealthy eating habits and irregular sleep patterns and are often at an increased risk for weight-related problems.

Improvement in these lifestyle behaviours may help to prevent depression, but knowledge about the associations between depression, sleep, eating habits and body weight among adolescents in India is limited.


This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of depression and its association with sleep patterns, eating habits and body weight status among a convenience sample of 527 adolescents, ages 10-17 years in Mumbai, India.

Participants completed a survey on sleep patterns such as sleep duration, daytime sleepiness and sleep problems and eating habits such as frequency of breakfast consumption, eating family meals and eating out.

Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire modified for Adolescents (PHQ-A).

Anthropometric measurements were also taken.


Within this sample, 25% had moderate to severe depression (PHQ-A ≥ 10) and 46% reported sleeping less than 6 h > thrice a week.

Adolescents with moderate to severe depression had significantly higher body mass index than those with minimal depression (26.2 ± 6.6 vs. 20.2 ± 4.8 kg/m2 ).

The odds of having clinically significant depression (PHQ-A ≥ 10) was 4.5 times higher in adolescents who had family meals ≤ once a week, 1.6 times higher among those who were sleeping <6 h and 2.3 times higher among participants having trouble falling to sleep more than thrice a week.


The findings indicated that a significant proportion of adolescents had depression symptoms; improving sleep and eating habits may present potential targets for interventions.


Moitra, P., Madan, J. & Shaikh, N.I. (2020) Eating habits and sleep patterns of adolescents with depression symptoms in Mumbai, India. Maternal & Child Nutrition. 16 Suppl 3(Suppl 3):e12998. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12998.

Book: Nutrition and Mental Health: A Handbook

Book Title:

Nutrition and Mental Health: A Handbook: An Essential Guide to the Relationship Between Diet and Mental Health.

Author(s): Michael Crawford, Oscar Umahro Cadogan, Alexandra J. Richardson, and Martina Watts.

Year: 2008.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Pavilion Publishing (Brighton) Ltd.

Type(s): Hardcover and Paperback.


The role of nutrition is fundamental to human health and well-being.

It is, however, often overlooked when treating people with mental health problems.

Book: The Food Addict’s Meal Prep Manual

Book Title:

The Food Addict’s Meal Prep Manual: Save Yourself From Food Addiction In Only 2 Hours A Week.

Author(s): Dr. Joan Ifland (PhD).

Year: 2018.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: ?.

Type(s): Kindle.


Research shows that addiction to processed foods explains why we overeat. Processed foods are everywhere which makes it very hard to break the food addiction cycle. It seems like people are pushing processed foods at every turn.

But you CAN break the cycle! Having your own beautiful meals is the secret! In The Food Addicts Meal Prep Manual, we’re going to show you step-by-step how to prepare all your meals in only 2 hours a week. Having meals at hand will give you a big advantage in regaining control over your food. This quick, easy guide shows you how to have fun and save lots of money by making all your food in two hours per week.

The guide lets you pick the foods you already love. You will be delighted at how beautiful and delicious these healthy meals are. Learn the surprising truth that ‘healthy’ can be scrumptious, inexpensive, and quick. This guide shows you how.

But you CAN break the cycle! In The Food Addicts Meal Prep Manual, we are going to show you step-by-step how to prepare healthy meals in only 2 hours a week, helping you to break the cycle of sugar, salt and processed foods, which are keeping you from having the body you want.

Go from feeling poor to having endless energy. Finally be able to lose weight and gain back that self-confidence. And most importantly, take back control in your life without the mindless eating and self-shaming that is keeping you locked in the cycle.

Book: Food Junkies: Recovery from Food Addiction

Book Title:

Food Junkies: Recovery from Food Addiction.

Author(s): Vera Tarman.

Year: 2019.

Edition: Second (2nd).

Publisher: Dundurn.

Type(s): Paperback, Audiobook, and Kindle.


A fact-filled guide to coping with compulsive overeating problems by an experienced addictions doctor who draws on many patients’ stories of recovery.

Overeating, binge eating, obesity, anorexia, and bulimia – Food Junkies tackles the complex, poorly understood issue of food addiction from the perspective of a medical researcher and dozens of survivors. What exactly is food addiction? Is it possible to draw a hard line between indulging cravings for “comfort food” and engaging in substance abuse? For people struggling with food addictions, recognizing their condition remains a frustrating battle.

This revised second edition contains the latest research as well as practical strategies for people facing the complicated challenges of eating disorders and addictions, offering an affirming and manageable path to healthy and sustainable habits.

Book: Food Addiction: Treatment for Overeating

Book Title:

Food Addiction: Treatment for Overeating.

Author(s): Charlie Mason.

Year: 2019.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Tilcan Group Limited.

Type(s): Paperback, Audiobook, and Kindle.


Millions of people are struggling with their healthy eating and lifestyle to help manage their weight. But what most people do not notice is the link between emotional craving and eating and unwanted weight. A part of your brain tells you that you need to eat a healthy meal but your craving is telling you to reach for the comfort food instead.

Chances are, you end up with the comfort food, but it is not for a lack of willpower or motivation! Food addiction leads to various health-related problems including being over-weight and other eating disorders.

Food addiction is a mental and physical issue that requires mental and physical treatment. Unlike other addictions, you cannot eliminate food from your daily behaviours as you can with smoking or alcohol. You need food to survive. This means you need to find a way to stop your cravings and eat less in a realistic way.

As you navigate through the pages of this book, you will find tips and techniques to help you understand your cravings, how to stop them, and ways to treat your food addiction. Enjoy the simple and easy-to-follow tables, lists, and guides as you choose healthy meals over unhealthy and your wellbeing over cravings.

This book is designed to give you solutions to overeating in an inspiring and unique way!

It aims to reveal to you the common beliefs and thoughts about foods, untangle the addictive impulses programmed in your brain, and how to retrain your mind and body so you can live a healthier, happier, and balanced life with eating.

Using an approachable and factual delivery, Food Addiction: Treatment for Overeating offers you real solutions and simple steps so you can learn how to release the negative feelings entrapping you in your negative habits and the constant drudgery of failed diets and broken assurances.

Book: The Food Addiction Recovery Workbook

Book Title:

The Food Addiction Recovery Workbook: How to Manage Cravings, Reduce Stress, and Stop Hating Your Body.

Author(s): Carolyn Coker Ross (MD, MPH).

Year: 2017.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: New Harbinger.

Type(s): Paperback and Kindle.


If you are struggling with obesity or food addiction, you have probably been told that you must deprive yourself of certain foods in order to lose weight. You may have also been convinced-by the media and by our culture-that if you finally become thin your life will be better, you will be happier, and your suffering will come to an end.

The problem is – it is not all about the food. It is about how food is used to self-soothe, to numb ourselves against the pain of living or to cope with stress and unresolved emotions. Even as your waist whittles away, the problems that caused your food addiction won’t disappear.

The Anchor Programme™ approach detailed in this workbook is not about dieting. It is about being anchored to your true, authentic self. When you find your unique anchor, you will relate better to your body, you will know intuitively how to feed your body, and you will reach the weight that is right for you. Anyone who’s been on the diet treadmill-losing and regaining lost weight-will admit that losing weight does not instantly bring health or happiness. That is because losing weight is a red herring for the real issue, the misuse of food to solve a problem that has nothing to do with food.

This book offers a whole-person approach that blends practical information on managing stress and regulating emotions without relying on food. If you are ready to uncover the true cause of your food addiction, you will finally be able to embrace a balanced diet and reach the weight that is right for you.

Book: The Emotional Eating Workbook

Book Title:

The Emotional Eating Workbook – A Proven-Effective Step-By-Step Guide To End Your Battle With Food And Satisfy Your Soul.

Author(s): Carolyn Coker Ross (MD, MPH).

Year: 2016.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: New Harbinger.

Type(s): Paperback and Kindle.


For over fifty years, nutritional and medical scientists have dissected the problem of obesity. The result of this half-century of investigation has been a series of recommendations about what and how much to eat, and an unintended consequence is that we have been deprived of the joy of eating. From low-fat diets to the no-carb craze, the market has been continually flooded with one assortment of fad products and diets after another. So, when does it end?

If you are struggling with emotional overeating and are trying to lose weight, you should know that you do not need to deny yourself certain foods. In The Emotional Eating Workbook, you will learn about the real psychological needs that underlie your food cravings, how to meet those needs in positive ways, be mindful of your body, and find the deep satisfaction many overeaters seek in food.

It is not about food. It is about how food is used to self-soothe, numb ourselves against the pain of living, or self-medicate in coping with stress and unresolved emotions. The Anchor Programme™ approach detailed in this book is not about dieting. It is about being anchored to your true, authentic self. When you find your unique anchor, you will relate better to your body, you will know intuitively how to feed your body, and you will reach the weight that is right for you.

Book: SNAP Matters

Book Title:

Snap Matters – How Food Stamps Affect Health And Well-Being (Studies in Social Inequality).

Author(s): Judith Bartfield, Craig Gundersen, Timothy Smeeding, and James P. Ziliak (Editors).

Year: 2015.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Stanford University Press.

Type(s): Hardcover, Paperback, and Kindle.


In 1963, President Kennedy proposed making permanent a small pilot project called the Food Stamp Programme (FSP). By 2013, the programme’s fiftieth year, more than one in seven Americans received benefits at a cost of nearly $80 billion. Renamed the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Programme (SNAP) in 2008, it currently faces sharp political pressure, but the social science research necessary to guide policy is still nascent.

In SNAP Matters, Judith Bartfeld, Craig Gundersen, Timothy M. Smeeding, and James P. Ziliak bring together top scholars to begin asking and answering the questions that matter. For example, what are the antipoverty effects of SNAP? Does SNAP cause obesity? Or does it improve nutrition and health more broadly? To what extent does SNAP work in tandem with other programmes, such as school breakfast and lunch? Overall, the volume concludes that SNAP is highly responsive to macroeconomic pressures and is one of the most effective antipoverty programmes in the safety net, but the volume also encourages policymakers, students, and researchers to continue examining this major pillar of social assistance in America.

What is the Effect of Nutrition on Mental HEalth?

Research Paper Title

The Effect of Nutrition on Mental Health: A Focus on Inflammatory Mechanisms.


Neuropsychiatric disorders are closely associated with a persistent low-grade inflammatory state.

This suggests that the development of psychopathology is not only limited to the brain, but rather involves an additional systemic aspect, accounting for the large body of evidence demonstrating co-presentation of mental illness with chronic inflammatory conditions and metabolic syndromes.

Studies have shown that inflammatory processes underlie the development of neuropsychiatric symptoms, with recent studies revealing not only correlative, but causative relationships between the immune system and psychopathology.

Lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise may influence psychopathology, and this may occur via a bidirectional relationship.

Mental illness may prevent health-seeking behaviours such as failing to maintain a balanced diet, whilst adopting a ‘healthy’ diet rich in fruits, vegetables and fish alongside nutritional supplementation correlates with a reduction in psychiatric symptoms in patients.

Obesity and the gut microbiome have proven to be further factors which play an important role in inflammatory signalling and the development of psychiatric symptoms.

In a related paper the authors focus on the role of exercise (another significant lifestyle factor) on mental health (Venkatesh et al. 2020).


Lifestyle modifications which target diet and nutrition may prove therapeutically beneficial for many patients, especially in treatment-resistant subgroups.

The current evidence base provides equivocal evidence, however future studies will prove significant, as this is a highly attractive therapeutic avenue, due to its cost efficacy, low side effect profile and preventative potential.

By promoting lifestyle changes and addressing the limitations and barriers to adoption, these therapies may prove revolutionary for mental health conditions.


Edirappuli, S.D., Venkatesh, A. & Zaman, R. (2020) The Effect of Nutrition on Mental Health: A Focus on Inflammatory Mechanisms. Psychiatria Danubina. 32(Suppl 1), pp.114-120.

Book: How to Use Herbs, Nutrients, and Yoga in Mental Health Care

Book Title:

How to Use Herbs, Nutrients, and Yoga in Mental Health Care.

Author(s): Richard P. Brown, Patricia L. Gerberg, and Phillip R. Muskin.

Year: 2012.

Edition: Reprint Edition.

Publisher: W.W. Norton & Co.

Type(s): Hardcover, Paperback and Kindle.


Many physicians and therapists agree that herbs and mind-body practices enhance health, but many more are reluctant to integrate them into their clinical work because of a lack of training or, given how long it takes to master the use of hundreds of different herbs, a lack of time.

But the trend is clear: clients and consumers alike want control over their health care choices, making the time ripe for a practical resource that guides both the clinician and the consumer on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This book answers that call.

Three noted experts in integrative medicine, Drs. Brown, Gerbarg, and Muskin, demystify the complexities of alternative mental health care, giving readers a comprehensive yet accessible guidebook to the best treatment options out there.

From mood, memory, and anxiety disorders to ADD, sexual enhancement issues, psychotic disorders, and substance abuse, every chapter covers a major diagnostic category.

The authors then present a range of complementary and alternative treatments-including the use of herbs, nutrients, vitamins, nootropics, hormones, and mind-body practices that they have found to be beneficial for various conditions within each category.

For example, B complex vitamins and folate have been shown to help with depression; omega-3 fatty acids can offer relief for bipolar sufferers; coherent and resonant breathing techniques-used by Buddhist monks-induce healthy alpha rhythms in the brain to relieve anxiety; the elderly can boost their memory by taking the ancient medicinal herb Rhodiola rosea; and those with chronic fatigue syndrome can find comfort in acupuncture and yoga.

Focusing on evidence-based approaches, the research, the authors’ clinical experience, and the potential risks and benefits of each treatment are carefully examined.

Brown, Gerbarg, and Muskin have distilled an otherwise daunting field of treatment down to its basics: their overriding approach is to present the CAM methods that are most practical in a clinical setting, easy to administer, and low in side effects.

With helpful summary tables at the end of each chapter, clinical pearls, and case vignettes interspersed throughout, this is a must-have resource for all clinicians and consumers who want the best that alternative medicine has to offer.