Book: A Manifesto for Mental Health

Book Title:

A Manifesto for Mental Health: Why We Need a Revolution in Mental Health Care.

Author(s): Peter Kinderman.

Year: 2019.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan.

Type(s): Paperback and Kindle.

Synopsis:

A Manifesto for Mental Health presents a radically new and distinctive outlook that critically examines the dominant ‘disease-model’ of mental health care. Incorporating the latest findings from both biological neuroscience and research into the social determinants of psychological problems, Peter Kinderman offers a contemporary, biopsychosocial, alternative. He warns that the way we care for people with mental health problems is creating a hidden human rights emergency and he proposes a new vision for the future of health organisations across the globe.

The book highlights persuasive evidence that our mental health and wellbeing depend largely on the society in which we live, on the things happen to us, and on how we learn to make sense of and respond to those events. Kinderman proposes a rejection of invalid diagnostic labels, practical help rather than medication, and a recognition that distress is usually an understandable human response to life’s challenges. Offering a serious critique of establishment thinking, A Manifesto for Mental Health provides a well-crafted demonstration of how, with scientific rigour and empathy, a revolution in mental health care is not only highly desirable, it is also entirely achievable.

What is the Impact of COVID-19 & Lockdown on the Mental Health of Children & Adolescents?

Research Paper Title

Impact of COVID-19 and lockdown on mental health of children and adolescents: A narrative review with recommendations.

Background

COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown has brought about a sense of fear and anxiety around the globe. This phenomenon has led to short term as well as long term psychosocial and mental health implications for children and adolescents. The quality and magnitude of impact on minors is determined by many vulnerability factors like developmental age, educational status, pre-existing mental health condition, being economically underprivileged or being quarantined due to infection or fear of infection.

This paper is aimed at narratively reviewing various articles related to mental-health aspects of children and adolescents impacted by COVID-19 pandemic and enforcement of nationwide or regional lockdowns to prevent further spread of infection.

Methods

The researchers conducted a review and collected articles and advisories on mental health aspects of children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. They selected articles and thematically organized them.

Results

The researchers put up their major findings under the thematic areas of impact on young children, school and college going students, children and adolescents with mental health challenges, economically underprivileged children, impact due to quarantine and separation from parents and the advisories of international organisations. They have also provided recommendations to the above.

Conclusions

There is a pressing need for planning longitudinal and developmental studies, and implementing evidence based elaborative plan of action to cater to the psycho social and mental health needs of the vulnerable children and adolescents during pandemic as well as post pandemic. There is a need to ameliorate children and adolescents’ access to mental health support services geared towards providing measures for developing healthy coping mechanisms during the current crisis.

For this innovative child and adolescent mental health policies with direct and digital collaborative networks of psychiatrists, psychologists, paediatricians, and community volunteers are deemed necessary.

Reference

Singh, S., Roy, D. Sinha, K., Parveen, S., Sharma, G. & Joshi, G. (2020) Impact of COVID-19 and lockdown on mental health of children and adolescents: A narrative review with recommendations. Psychiatry Research. 293, pp.113429. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113429. Online ahead of print.

Mental Health Care, Policy, and COVID-19: The Renewed Role for Psychiatric and Addiction Nursing

Research Paper Title

Mental Health Care, Policy, and COVID-19: The Renewed Role for Psychiatric and Addiction Nursing.

Background

Kovner (2020) has importantly highlighted the role that health care workers play in the 21st century to fight pandemics, such as the recent COVID-19 outbreak, in Canada and around the world. The heroic actions, determination, selflessness, and compassion of nurses and many health care providers worldwide have become the highlighted story of COVID-19 pandemic (Kovner, 2020). This is particularly significant, as 2020 has been called the Year of the Nurse and the Midwife by the World Health Organization and the International Council of Nurses to celebrate the birth of renowned nurse Florence Nightingale on her 200th anniversary. While this year has already signified the critical position of nurses in primary care, policy, and clinical practice, the role of psychiatric nurses and their contributions to primary care have often been overlooked by society, government policy makers, and many academics.

This is particularly true, as most provinces/states do not have dedicated bachelors’ degrees in psychiatric nursing, except for British Columbia (BC), Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba in Canada. Additionally, BC remains the only province/State in North America that has a fellowship program in Addiction nursing (Jozaghi & Dadakhah-Chimeh, 2018). Momentously, it was also the first province/state in North America to enact a provincial ministry dedicated to mental health and addiction (BC Gov News, 2017). This is remarkably significant in the current pandemic as many North American are asked to work from home, have been laid off, ordered to self-isolate, or practice social distancing. The cumulative effects of financial strain and self-isolation have already been reflected in a higher frequency of police calls for mental health and domestic assault cases in many provinces, territories, and states (Hong, 2020; Seebruch, 2020). The latest research also highlights a projected increase in suicide cases in North America linked to the COVID-19 pandemic (McIntyre & Lee, 2020). Self-isolation measures and the ongoing opioid crisis have also caused sharp increases in mortalities linked to synthetic opioids to their highest levels (Johnston, 2020). Finally, some researchers have warned about the potential misuse of alcohol during the current pandemic (Clay & Parker, 2020).

Therefore, the rise in mental health and domestic abuse calls, potential suicides, overdose deaths, and alcohol abuse serves as a reminder that COVID-19 is not our only health crisis. We must tackle and plan for the potential tsunami of mental health and addiction cases. While the Federal government in Canada has promised investment to improve long-term care, Kovner (2020) rightly pointed out that COVID-19 pandemic is about politics and policy and we similarly urge the governments and municipalities to invest to improve public health. More importantly, dedicated mental health care and training in psychiatric and addiction nursing is long overdue. We also recommend that cities, states, and federal housing agencies to increase funding for dedicated mental health and harm reduction programs during the current pandemic for people who have mental health or substance use disorders.

Reference

Dadakhah-Chimeh, Z. & Jozaghi, E. (2020) Mental Health Care, Policy, and COVID-19: The Renewed Role for Psychiatric and Addiction Nursing. Policy, Politics& Nursing Practice. doi: 10.1177/1527154420957305. Online ahead of print.

Book: London and Its Asylums, 1888-1914 – Politics and Madness

Book Title:

London and Its Asylums, 1888-1914 – Politics and Madness.

Author(s): Robert Ellis.

Year: 2020.

Edition: First (1ed).

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan.

Type(s): Hardcover and Kindle.

Synopsis:

This book explores the impact that politics had on the management of mental health care at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. 1888 and the introduction of the Local Government Act marked a turning point in which democratically elected bodies became responsible for the management of madness for the first time.

With its focus on London in the period leading up to the First World War, it offers a new way to look at institutions and to consider their connections to wider issues that were facing the capital and the nation.

The chapters that follow place London at the heart of international networks and debates relating to finance, welfare, architecture, scientific and medical initiatives, and the developing responses to immigrant populations.

Overall, it shines a light on the relationships between mental health policies and other ideological priorities.

A Review of Effective/Cost Effective Interventions of Child Mental Health Problems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LAMIC)

Research Paper Title

Effective/cost effective interventions of child mental health problems in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC): Systematic review.

Background

This systematic review protocol aims to examine the evidence of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions for children and adolescents with, or at risk of developing mental disorders in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs).

Methods

The researchers will search Medline Ovid, EMBASE Ovid, PsycINFO Ovid, CINAHL, LILACS, BDENF and IBECS. We will include randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, economic modelling studies and economic evaluations.

Participants are 6 to 18 year-old children and adolescents who live in a LAMIC and who present with, or are at high risk of developing, one or more of the conditions: depression, anxiety, behavioural disorders, eating disorders, psychosis, substance abuse, autism and intellectual disabilities as defined by the DSM-V.

Interventions which address suicide, self-harm will also be included, if identified during the extraction process.

The researchers will include in person or e-health interventions which have some evidence of effectiveness (in relation to clinical and/or functional outcomes) and which have been delivered to young people in LAMICs.

They will consider a wide range of delivery channels (e.g., in person, web-based or virtual, phone), different practitioners (healthcare practitioners, teachers, lay health care providers) and sectors (i.e., primary, secondary and tertiary health care, education, guardianship councils).

In the pilot of screening procedures, 5% of all references will be screened by two reviewers.

Divergences will be resolved by one expert in mental health research.

Reviewers will be retrained afterwards to ensure reliability. The remaining 95% will be screened by one reviewer.

Covidence web-based tool will be used to perform screening of references and full text paper, and data extraction.

Results

The protocol of this systematic review will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at relevant conferences.

The results will be presented descriptively and, if possible, meta-analysis will be conducted. Ethical approval is not needed for anonymised secondary data.

Conclusions

The systematic review could help health specialists and other professionals to identify evidence-based strategies to deal with child and adolescents with mental health conditions.

Reference

Grande, A.J., Ribeiro, W.S., Faustino, C., de Miranda, C.T., Mcdaid, D., Fry, A., de Moraes, S.H.M., de Oliveira, S.M.D.V.L., de Farias, J.M., de Tarso Coelho Jardim, P., King, D., Silva, V., Ziebold, C. & Evans-Lacko, S. (2020) Effective/cost effective interventions of child mental health problems in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC): Systematic review. Medicine (Baltimore). 99(1):e18611. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000018611.

What are the Factors Associated with Anxiety Disorders among Patients with Substance Use Disorders

Research Paper Title

Factors associated with anxiety disorders among patients with substance use disorders in Lebanon: Results of a cross-sectional study.

Background

Estimate the rate of anxiety disorders (AD) and associated factors among patients with substance use disorder (SUD) in Lebanon.

Methods

A cross-sectional study, conducted between April and September 2017, enrolled 57 inpatients with SUD.

Results

The rate of AD in patients with SUD was 61.4%. The university level of education compared to the primary level of education (ORa = 0.221) was significantly associated with lower anxiety among patients with SUD. Being sexually abused and having a family history of depression tended to significance.

Conclusions

AD is widespread in Lebanon and high rates of anxiety in patients with SUD were found, warranting the implementation of strategic interventions and establishing national policies and legislation for mental health services to provide optimal care.

Reference

Haddad, C., Darwich, M.J., Obeid, S., Sacre, H., Zakhour, M., Kazour, F., Nabout, R., Hallit, S. & Tahan, F.E. (2019) Factors associated with anxiety disorders among patients with substance use disorders in Lebanon: Results of a cross-sectional study. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care. doi: 10.1111/ppc.12462. [Epub ahead of print].

Health Policies: Consider the Direct & Indirect Cross-effects between Mental Health & Physical Health

Research Paper Title

The relationship between physical and mental health: A mediation analysis.

Background

There is a strong link between mental health and physical health, but little is known about the pathways from one to the other.

The researchers analyse the direct and indirect effects of past mental health on present physical health and past physical health on present mental health using lifestyle choices and social capital in a mediation framework.

Methods

They use data on 10,693 individuals aged 50 years and over from six waves (2002-2012) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

Mental health is measured by the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES) and physical health by the Activities of Daily Living (ADL).

Results

The researchers find significant direct and indirect effects for both forms of health, with indirect effects explaining 10% of the effect of past mental health on physical health and 8% of the effect of past physical health on mental health.

Physical activity is the largest contributor to the indirect effects.

There are stronger indirect effects for males in mental health (9.9%) and for older age groups in mental health (13.6%) and in physical health (12.6%).

Conclusions

Health policies aiming at changing physical and mental health need to consider not only the direct cross-effects but also the indirect cross-effects between mental health and physical health.

Reference

Ohrnberger, J., Fichera, E. & Sutton, M. (2017) The relationship between physical and mental health: A mediation analysis. Social Science & Medicine (1982). 195, pp.42-49. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.11.008. Epub 2017 Nov 8.