Book: Stahl’s Illustrated Substance Use and Impulsive Disorders

Book Title:

Stahl’s Illustrated Substance Use and Impulsive Disorders.

Author(s): Stephen M. Stahl and Meghan M. Grady.

Year: 2012.

Edition: First (1st), Illustrated Edition.

Publisher: Cambridge University Press.

Type(s): Paperback and Kindle.

Synopsis:

All of the titles in the Stahl’s Illustrated series are designed to be fun. Concepts are illustrated by full-colour images that will be familiar to readers of Stahl’s Essential Psychopharmacology, 3rd edition, and The Prescriber’s Guide. The visual learner will find that these books make psychopharmacology concepts easy to master, while the non-visual learner will enjoy a shortened text version of complex psychopharmacology concepts. Each chapter builds on previous ones, synthesizing information from basic biology and diagnostics to building treatment plans and dealing with complications and comorbidities. Novices may want to begin by looking through all the graphics and gaining a feel for the visual vocabulary. Readers more familiar with these topics should find that going back and forth between images and text provides an interaction with which to vividly conceptualize complex pharmacologies. Each book ends with a Suggested Reading section to help guide more in-depth learning about particular concepts.

Book: Physical Health and Schizophrenia

Book Title:

Physical Health and Schizophrenia (Oxford Psychiatry Library Series).

Author(s): David J. Castle, Peter F. Buckley, and Fiona P. Gaughran.

Year: 2017.

Edition: First (1st), Illustrated Edition.

Publisher: Oxford University Press.

Type(s): Paperback and Kindle.

Synopsis:

In comparison to the general population, people with schizophrenia and related disorders have poorer physical health and increased mortality. Whilst it is recognized that serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia carry a reduced life expectancy, it is often assumed that suicide is the main cause of this disparity. In actuality, suicide accounts for no more than a third of the early mortality associated with schizophrenia: the vast majority is due to cardiovascular factors

Physical Health and Schizophreniaoffers a user-friendly guide to the physical health problems associated with schizophrenia and a clear overview of strategies and interventions to tackle these issues. Spanning eight chapters this resource covers the essential topics in a practical and easy-to-read format to suit the needs of busy clinicians. It also includes an appendix designed specifically for patients and carers, with practical tips on how to be actively involved in monitoring and managing physical health problems.

Part of the Oxford Psychiatry Library series, Physical Health and Schizophrenia offers readers a fully up-to-date and valuable insight into this complex issue. With helpful key points at the start of each chapter and a clear layout, this is an essential resource for busy clinicians and researchers in any mental health field as well as those working in primary care.

Book: Schizophrenia and Psychiatric Comorbidities – Recognition Management

Book Title:

Schizophrenia and Psychiatric Comorbidities – Recognition Management (Oxford Psychiatry Library Series).

Author(s): David J. Castle, Peter F. Buckley, and Rachel Upthegrove.

Year: 2021.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: Oxford University Press.

Type(s): Paperback and Kindle.

Synopsis:

Psychiatric comorbidities such as depression, anxiety and substance use are extremely common amongst people with schizophrenia. They add to poor clinical outcomes and disability, yet are often not at the forefront of the minds of clinicians, who tend to concentrate on assessing and treating the core symptoms of schizophrenia, notably delusions and hallucinations. There is an imperative to assess every patient with schizophrenia for psychiatric comorbidities, as they might masquerade as core psychotic symptoms and also because they warrant treatment in their own right. This volume addresses these issues using a clinical lens informed by the current literature. Published as part of the Oxford Psychiatry Library series, the book serves as a concise and practical reference for busy clinicians.

Book: Best Practices and Barriers to Engaging People with Substance Use Disorders in Treatment

Book Title:

Best Practices and Barriers to Engaging People with Substance Use Disorders in Treatment.

Author(s): Peggy O’Brien, Erika Crable, Catherine Fullerton, and Lauren Hughey.

Year: March 2019.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: US Department of Health and Human Services.

Type(s): eBook.

Synopsis:

In 2015, 20.8 million people aged 12 years or older (7.8% of the United States population) had a substance use disorder (SUD) in the previous year. Approximately 75% of this group, or 15.7 million Americans, had an alcohol use disorder,
2.0 million had a prescription opioid use disorder (OUD), and about 0.6 million had a heroin use disorder.

Since 1999, opioid-related overdose deaths in the United States have quadrupled, with more than 15,000 individuals experiencing prescription drug-related overdose deaths in 2015. Even though evidence-based SUD treatments are effective, rates of treatment receipt are quite low. In 2015, only 18% of the population with SUDs, or 3.7 million people, received SUD treatment – a number that has not increased significantly since 2002.

Only about 48% of patients who enter SUD treatment actually complete it.

You can access the book, for free, here.

Book: Approaches to Drug Abuse Counselling

Book Title:

Approaches to Drug Abuse Counselling.

Author(s): National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).

Year: 2000.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: US Government Printing Office.

Type(s): eBook.

Synopsis:

Dual disorders recovery counselling (DDRC) is an integrated approach to treatment of patients with drug use disorders and comorbid psychiatric disorders.

The DDRC model, which integrates individual and group addiction counselling approaches with psychiatric interventions, attempts to balance the focus of treatment so that both the patient’s addiction and psychiatric issues are addressed.

The DDRC model is based on the assumption that there are several treatment phases that patients may go through.

You can access the book, for free, here.

Book: Integrating Behavioural Therapies with Medications in the Treatment of Drug Dependence

Book Title:

Integrating Behavioural Therapies With Medications in the Treatment of Drug Dependence (National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series).

Author(s): Lisa Simon Onken (PhD), Jack D. Blaine (MD), and John J. Boren (PhD.

Year: 1995.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: US Government Printing Office.

Type(s): eBook.

Synopsis:

It is no revelation that drug dependence is a complex problem with behavioural, cognitive, psychosocial, and biological dimensions and may be treated with behavioural therapy (including behaviour therapy, psychotherapy, and counselling), and, where available, pharmacotherapy.

Drug use can be reduced behaviourally with appropriate manipulation of reinforcements within the environment (Higgins et al. 1993). Continued improvements over time in drug use can be initiated by cognitive behavioural psychotherapies to modify cognitions that perpetuate drug use (Carroll et al., submitted for publication), and a reduced likelihood of
relapse has been engendered by specialised training approaches (Rohsenow et al., in press).

Methadone, of course, has long been recognised as an effective pharmacotherapy to reduce opiate use, and its biological mechanism of action is well understood.

You can access the book, for free, here.

Book: Psychotherapy And Counselling In The Treatment Of Drug Abuse

Book Title:

Psychotherapy And Counselling In The Treatment Of Drug Abuse (National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series).

Author(s): Lisa Simon Onken (PhD) and Jack D. Blaine (MD).

Year: 1990.

Edition: First (1st).

Publisher: US Government Printing Office.

Type(s): eBook.

Synopsis:

Drug abuse treatment occurs in a multitude of forms. It may be provided in outpatient or inpatient settings, be publicly or privately funded, and mayor may not involve the administration of medication. The differences among the philosophies of, and the services provided in, various drug abuse treatment programmes may be enormous. What is remarkable is that some form of drug abuse counselling or psychotherapy is almost invariably a part of every type of comprehensive drug abuse treatment. Individual therapy or counselling is available in about 99% of the drug-free, methadone-maintenance, and multiple-modality drug abuse treatment units in this country (National Drug and Alcoholism Treatment Unit Survey 1982). It is also available in approximately 97% of the detoxification units.

You can access the book, for free, here.

Are There Sex Differences in Comorbidity Between Substance Use & Mental Health in Adolescents?

Research Paper Title

Sex Differences in Comorbidity Between Substance Use and Mental Health in Adolescents: Two Sides of the Same Coin.

Background

This study aims to evaluate sex differences in alcohol and cannabis use and mental health disorders (MHD) in adolescents, and to evaluate the predictive role of mental health disorders for alcohol and cannabis use disorders (AUD and CUD respectively).

Method

A sample of 863 adolescents from the general population (53.7% girls, Mage = 16.62, SD = 0.85) completed a computerised battery including questions on substance use frequency, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Cannabis Problems Questionnaire for Adolescents – Short version, the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index and the DSM-IV-TR criteria for AUD and CUD. Bivariate analyses and binary logistic regressions were performed.

Results

Girls presented significantly more mental health problems and a higher prevalence of comorbidity between SUD and MHD. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms and phobic anxiety indicated a higher risk of AUD, whereas depression and interaction between hostility and obsessive-compulsive disorder indicated a higher risk of CUD.

Conclusions

Comorbidity between SUD and MHD is high among adolescents, and significantly higher among girls.

Reference

Fernandez-Artamendi, S. Martinez-Loredo, V. & Lopez-Nunez, C. (2021) Sex Differences in Comorbidity Between Substance Use and Mental Health in Adolescents: Two Sides of the Same Coin. Psicotherma. 33(1), pp.36-43. doi: 10.7334/psicothema2020.297.

With Regard to Mental Health & Substance Use Disorders what is the Reality of Youth in Custody?

Research Paper Title

Mental health and substance use disorders: The reality of youth in custody.

Background

Young offenders experience a higher prevalence of mental health disorders and substance use disorders than the general population, estimated to be between 70% and 90% (Indig et al. 2011; Kenny et al., 2006; Lader et al., 2000; Teplin et al., 2002). In addition, comorbidities affect many young offenders, with over 60% presenting with two or more disorders (Justice Health & Forensic Mental Health Network and Juvenile Justice NSW, 2015). The prevalence of mental health disorders is higher among females, with young female offenders more likely to be diagnosed with anxiety and depressive disorders, as well as substance‐induced disorders (Justice Health & Forensic Mental Health Network and Juvenile Justice NSW, 2015).

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander youth are over‐represented within the juvenile justice system. In a report by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, it was found that 50% of young offenders in 2016-2017 identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2018). Mental health and substance use disorders are the most common non‐communicable diseases among this group with 33% reporting high to very high levels of psychological distress (Azzopardi et al. 2018). Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that poor family cohesion and the presence of adverse events in this group of adolescents are a reliable predictor of negative mental health outcomes (Young et al. 2016).

A recent Australian study reported the strongest predictor of incarceration and re‐incarceration was problematic alcohol and drug use (Indig et al., 2016). Indig et al. found that young people who were heavy drinkers were seven times more likely to have been previously incarcerated and three times more likely to be re‐incarcerated within 18 months. Indig et al. (2016) also found that illicit substance use was a consistent predictor of incarceration and re‐incarceration.

In addition to issues with drugs and alcohol, many incarcerated young people also report experiencing adverse childhood experiences during their childhood years with as many as 90% reporting at least one traumatic event (Ford et al., 2012). A recent Australian study found that 60% of young offenders reported a history of child abuse or neglect, 20% met the criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Moore et al. 2013). A history of adverse childhood experiences is the main predictor of a diagnosis of PTSD (Moore et al. 2013). Evidence suggests a link between exposure to adverse childhood experiences and the occurrence of various mental health difficulties among young offenders (McReynolds & Wasserman, 2011; Wasserman & McReynolds, 2011; Wilson et al., 2009).

It is unfortunate that many troubled youth are not recognized as being distressed or having mental health difficulties, and so do not have access to appropriate mental health care. Furthermore, these young people and their families may have very low levels of mental health literacy. However, once these young people come to the attention of the justice system, we have an opportunity to raise mental health literacy and provide appropriate services. There is a need for programmes and services that address mental health and substance use issues to assist young people improve their health outcomes and reduce their offending behaviours. Programmes such as monthly recovery management check‐ups in the first 90 days postrelease could help to achieve this outcome (Indig et al., 2016).

Given the high rate of adverse childhood experiences in incarcerated youth and the known link to PTSD, we need to ensure that services are informed by a trauma informed approach (Moore et al. 2013). There is also an identified need to invest in prevention and early intervention for young people. Currently, there are diversion programmes offered within the local court system in NSW for adult offenders exhibiting mental health (Statewide Community & Court Liaison Service) or substance use disorders (Magistrates Early Referral Into Treatment (MERIT)). However, these programmes are not available to offenders under the age of 18 years and adolescent diversion programmes are not routinely or diversely available to young people residing outside of the Sydney metropolitan area.

The mental health and substance use issues affecting young offenders challenge us to respond with effective interventions. Mental health nurses have an important role to play in improving the services and interventions available to these young people. Changes have been made to services for young offenders but more needs to be done. Research has shown that diversion and treatment services delivered in the community using a trauma informed approach are more effective in this population (Dierkhising et al. 2013). Moving forward, mental health nurses have an opportunity to take the lead in this important area.

Reference

Usher, K., Douglas, L. & Jackson, D. (2020) Mental health and substance use disorders: The reality of youth in custody. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing. 28(3). https://doi.org/10.1111/inm.12597.

Linking Job Skills Training & Substance Misuse

Research Paper Title

Spillover Effects of Job Skills Training on Substance Misuse Among Low-Income Youths With Employment Barriers: A Longitudinal Cohort Study.

Background

To examine spillover effects of job skills training (vs basic services only [e.g. adult basic education, job readiness training]) on substance misuse among low-income youths with employment barriers.

Methods

Data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, a longitudinal cohort study of youths born between 1980 and 1984 in the United States.

Based on respondents’ reports of substance misuse (past-month binge drinking and past-year marijuana and other illicit drug use) from 2000 to 2016, the researchers estimated substance misuse trajectories of job skills training (n = 317) and basic services (n = 264) groups.

They accounted for potential selection bias by using inverse probability of treatment weighting.

Results

Compared with the basic services group, the job skills training group showed notable long-term reductions in its illicit drug misuse trajectory, translating to a 56.9% decrease in prevalence rates from 6.5% in year 0 to 2.8% in year 16.

Conclusions

Job skills training can be an important service component for reducing substance misuse and improving employment outcomes among youths with economic disadvantages and employment barriers.

Reference

Oh, S., DiNitto, D.M. & Powers, D.A. (2020) Spillover Effects of Job Skills Training on Substance Misuse Among Low-Income Youths With Employment Barriers: A Longitudinal Cohort Study. American Journal of Public Health. 110(6), pp.900-906. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2020.305631. Epub 2020 Apr 16.