Book: Encyclopedia of Mental Health

Book Title:

Encyclopedia of Mental Health.

Author(s): Howard S. Friedman.

Year: 2015.

Edition: Second (2nd).

Publisher: Academic Press.

Type(s): Hardcover and Kindle.

Synopsis:

The Encyclopedia of Mental Health, Second Edition, tackles the subject of mental health, arguably one of the biggest issues facing modern society. The book presents a comprehensive overview of the many genetic, neurological, social, and psychological factors that affect mental health, also describing the impact of mental health on the individual and society, and illustrating the factors that aid positive mental health.

The book contains 245 peer-reviewed articles written by more than 250 expert authors and provides essential material on assessment, theories of personality, specific disorders, therapies, forensic issues, ethics, and cross-cultural and sociological aspects. Both professionals and libraries will find this timely work indispensable.

  • Provides fully up-to-date descriptions of the neurological, social, genetic, and psychological factors that affect the individual and society.
  • Contains more than 240 articles written by domain experts in the field.
  • Written in an accessible style using terms that an educated layperson can understand.
  • Of interest to public as well as research libraries with coverage of many important topics, including marital health, divorce, couples therapy, fathers, child custody, day care and day care providers, extended families, and family therapy.

Do Older Adults with Parent(s) Alive Experience Higher Psychological Pain and Suicidal Ideation?

Research Paper Title

Do Older Adults with Parent(s) Alive Experience Higher Psychological Pain and Suicidal Ideation? A Cross-Sectional Study in China.

Background

Elderly mental health promotion is an important task in the current “Healthy China Action”.

This study aims to:

  1. Clarify the psychological pain and suicidal ideation of the Chinese elderly with different parental states;
  2. Examine the associated factors of psychological pain and suicidal ideation; and
  3. Examine the relationship between psychological pain and suicidal ideation.

Methods

A sample of 4622 adults aged 60 years and older were included in this study, from the China’s Health-related Quality of Life Survey for Older Adults 2018.

Results

Participants with both parents alive demonstrated the heaviest psychological pain, and those with one parent alive observed significantly lowest psychological pain and suicidal ideation.

Participants who were single, divorced, or widowed, live in rural areas, had higher education level, had lower family income, suffered from two or more chronic diseases, and had no self-care ability were more likely to experience psychological pain and suicidal ideation.

In addition, higher psychological pain was significantly associated with the occurrence of suicidal ideation.

Conclusions

In China, much more attention should be paid to the mental health condition of the elderly, especially for those with both parents alive.

Moreover, the associated factors above should be considered to develop targeted health interventions.

Reference

Yang, Y., Wang, S., Hu, B., HAo, J., Hu, R., Zhou, Y. & Mao, Zongfu. (2020) Do Older Adults with Parent(s) Alive Experience Higher Psychological Pain and Suicidal Ideation? A Cross-Sectional Study in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 17(17), pp.E6399. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17176399.

Examining National Trends in the Care of Different Mental Health Problems & in Different Treatment Settings among Adolescents

National Trends in Mental Health Care for US Adolescents.

Background

The prevalence of adolescent depression and other internalising mental health problems has increased in recent years, whereas the prevalence of externalising behaviours has decreased. The association of these changes with the use of mental health services has not been previously examined.

Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine national trends in the care of different mental health problems and in different treatment settings among adolescents.

Methods

Data for this survey study were drawn from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, an annual cross-sectional survey of the US general population. This study focused on adolescent participants aged 12 to 17 years interviewed from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2018. Data were reported as weighted percentages and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and analysed from July 20 to December 1, 2019.

Time trends in 12-month prevalence of any mental health treatment or counselling in a wide range of settings were examined overall and for different:

  • Sociodemographic groups;
  • Types of mental health problems (internalising, externalising, relationship, and school related); and
  • Treatment settings (inpatient mental health, outpatient mental health, general medical, and school counselling).

Trends in the number of visits and nights in inpatient settings were also examined.

Results

A total of 47,090 of the 230,070 adolescents across survey years (19.7%) received mental health care. Of these, 57.5% were female; 31.3%, aged 12 to 13 years; 35.8%, aged 14 to 15 years; and 32.9%, aged 16 to 17 years.

The overall prevalence of mental health care did not change appreciably over time. However, mental health care increased among girls (from 22.8% in 2005-2006 to 25.4% in 2017-2018; aOR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04-1.19; P = .001), non-Hispanic white adolescents (from 20.4% in 2005-2006 to 22.7% in 2017-2018; aOR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.14; P = .004), and those with private insurance (from 19.4% in 2005-2006 to 21.2% in 2017-2018; aOR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04-1.18; P = .002).

Internalising problems, including suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms, accounted for an increasing proportion of care (from 48.3% in 2005-2006 to 57.8% in 2017-2018; aOR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.39-1.66; P < .001), whereas externalising problems (from 31.9% in 2005-2006 to 23.7% in 2017-2018; aOR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.62-0.73; P < .001) and relationship problems (from 30.4% in 2005-2006 to 26.9% in 2017-2018; aOR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.69-0.82; P < .001) accounted for decreasing proportions.

During this period, use of outpatient mental health services increased from 58.1% in 2005-2006 to 67.3% in 2017-2018 (aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.35-1.59; P < .001), although use of school counselling decreased from 49.1% in 2005-2006 to 45.4% in 2017-2018 (aOR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.79-0.93; P < .001).

Outpatient mental health visits (eg, private mental health clinicians, from 7.2 in 2005-2006 to 9.0 in 2017-2018; incidence rate ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.23-1.37; P < .001) and overnight stays in inpatient mental health settings (from 4.0 nights in 2005-2006 to 5.4 nights in 2017-2018; incidence rate ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.02-1.37; P = .03) increased.

Conclusions

This study’s findings suggest that the growing number of adolescents who receive care for internalising mental health problems and the increasing share who receive care in specialty outpatient settings are placing new demands on specialty adolescent mental health treatment resources.

Reference

Mojtabai, R. & Olfson, M. (2020) National Trends in Mental Health Care for US Adolescents. JAMA Psychiatry. 77(7), pp.1-12. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.0279. Online ahead of print.

Research Paper Title

National Trends in Mental Health Care for US Adolescents.

Background

The prevalence of adolescent depression and other internalising mental health problems has increased in recent years, whereas the prevalence of externalising behaviours has decreased. The association of these changes with the use of mental health services has not been previously examined.

Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine national trends in the care of different mental health problems and in different treatment settings among adolescents.

Methods

Data for this survey study were drawn from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, an annual cross-sectional survey of the US general population. This study focused on adolescent participants aged 12 to 17 years interviewed from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2018. Data were reported as weighted percentages and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and analysed from July 20 to December 1, 2019.

Time trends in 12-month prevalence of any mental health treatment or counselling in a wide range of settings were examined overall and for different:

  • Sociodemographic groups;
  • Types of mental health problems (internalising, externalising, relationship, and school related); and
  • Treatment settings (inpatient mental health, outpatient mental health, general medical, and school counselling).

Trends in the number of visits and nights in inpatient settings were also examined.

Results

A total of 47,090 of the 230,070 adolescents across survey years (19.7%) received mental health care. Of these, 57.5% were female; 31.3%, aged 12 to 13 years; 35.8%, aged 14 to 15 years; and 32.9%, aged 16 to 17 years.

The overall prevalence of mental health care did not change appreciably over time. However, mental health care increased among girls (from 22.8% in 2005-2006 to 25.4% in 2017-2018; aOR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04-1.19; P = .001), non-Hispanic white adolescents (from 20.4% in 2005-2006 to 22.7% in 2017-2018; aOR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.14; P = .004), and those with private insurance (from 19.4% in 2005-2006 to 21.2% in 2017-2018; aOR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04-1.18; P = .002).

Internalising problems, including suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms, accounted for an increasing proportion of care (from 48.3% in 2005-2006 to 57.8% in 2017-2018; aOR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.39-1.66; P < .001), whereas externalising problems (from 31.9% in 2005-2006 to 23.7% in 2017-2018; aOR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.62-0.73; P < .001) and relationship problems (from 30.4% in 2005-2006 to 26.9% in 2017-2018; aOR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.69-0.82; P < .001) accounted for decreasing proportions.

During this period, use of outpatient mental health services increased from 58.1% in 2005-2006 to 67.3% in 2017-2018 (aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.35-1.59; P < .001), although use of school counselling decreased from 49.1% in 2005-2006 to 45.4% in 2017-2018 (aOR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.79-0.93; P < .001).

Outpatient mental health visits (eg, private mental health clinicians, from 7.2 in 2005-2006 to 9.0 in 2017-2018; incidence rate ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.23-1.37; P < .001) and overnight stays in inpatient mental health settings (from 4.0 nights in 2005-2006 to 5.4 nights in 2017-2018; incidence rate ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.02-1.37; P = .03) increased.

Conclusions

This study’s findings suggest that the growing number of adolescents who receive care for internalising mental health problems and the increasing share who receive care in specialty outpatient settings are placing new demands on specialty adolescent mental health treatment resources.

Reference

Mojtabai, R. & Olfson, M. (2020) National Trends in Mental Health Care for US Adolescents. JAMA Psychiatry. 77(7), pp.1-12. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.0279. Online ahead of print.

Is There a Mental Health Crisis among Canadian Postsecondary Students?

Research Paper Title

Mental Health among Canadian Postsecondary Students: A Mental Health Crisis?

Background

Recent reports express concerns about a mental health crisis among postsecondary students. These assertions, however, often arise from surveys conducted in postsecondary settings that lack the broader context of a referent group. The objectives of this study were:

  • To assess the mental health status of postsecondary students 18 to 25 years old from 2011 to 2017; and
  • To compare the mental health status of postsecondary students to nonstudents.

Methods

Prevalence was estimated for a set of mental health outcomes using seven annual iterations of the Canadian Community Health Survey (2011 to 2017). Logistic regression was used to derive odds ratio estimates comparing mental health status among postsecondary students and nonstudents, adjusting for age and sex. Random effects metaregression and meta-analyses techniques were used to evaluate trends in prevalence and odds ratio estimates over time.

Results

Over the study period, the prevalence of perceived low mental health, diagnosed mood and anxiety disorders, and past-year mental health consultations increased among female students, whereas binge drinking decreased among male students. With the exception of perceived stress, the odds of experiencing each mental health outcome were lower among postsecondary students compared to nonstudents.

Conclusions

These findings do not support the idea that postsecondary students have worse mental health than nonstudents of similar age. The perception of a crisis may arise from greater help-seeking behaviour, diminishing stigma, or increasing mental health literacy. Regardless, the observance of these trends provide an opportunity to address a previously latent issue.

Reference

Wiens, K., Bhattarai, A., Dores, A., Pedram, P., Williams, J.V.A., Bulloch, A.G.M. & Patten, S.B. (2020) Mental Health among Canadian Postsecondary Students: A Mental Health Crisis? Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 65(1), pp.30-35. doi: 10.1177/0706743719874178. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Could Programmes to Improve Mental Health Literacy Facilitate Formal as well as Informal Help-seeking among Unemployed Persons with Mental Health Problems?

Research Paper Title

Mental health literacy and help-seeking among unemployed people with mental health problems.

Background

Unemployed people with mental health problems often do not use available mental health services.

Help-seeking may depend on knowledge, recognition and attitudes associated with mental health – a concept referred to as mental health literacy (MHL).

Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of MHL on help-seeking intentions and behaviours among unemployed individuals with mental health problems.

Methods

A total of 301 unemployed individuals with mental health problems were recruited mainly from employment agencies in Southern Germany.

MHL was assessed by the Mental Health Knowledge Schedule (MAKS), the Depression Literacy Scale (DLS), and the Depression with Suicidal Thoughts Vignette.

Help-seeking intentions and behaviours were measured using the General Help-Seeking Questionnaire (GHSQ).

Associations between MHL and help-seeking intentions and behaviours were tested using regression analyses and structural equation modelling (SEM).

Results

All three MHL scales were significantly positively associated with help-seeking intentions and behaviors.

In their SEM model, greater MHL was significantly associated with increased intentions and behaviours to seek help from health professionals (formal help) and from family and friends (informal help).

Conclusions

Among unemployed persons with mental health problems, programmes to improve MHL could facilitate formal as well as informal help-seeking.

Future research should examine the efficacy of MHL-interventions to increase help-seeking.

Reference

Waldmann, T., Staiger, T., Oexle, N. & Rusch, N. (2020) Mental health literacy and help-seeking among unemployed people with mental health problems. Journal of Mental Health (Abingdon, England). 29(3), pp.270-276. doi: 10.1080/09638237.2019.1581342. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

What are the Perceptions of Mental Health and Perceived Barriers to Mental Health Help-Seeking Amongst Refugees?

Research Paper Title

Perceptions of Mental Health and Perceived Barriers to Mental Health Help-Seeking Amongst Refugees: A Systematic Review.

Background

Despite elevated rates of psychological disorders amongst individuals from a refugee background, levels of mental health help-seeking in these populations are low.

There is an urgent need to understand the key barriers that prevent refugees and asylum-seekers from accessing help for psychological symptoms.

This review synthesises literature examining perceptions of mental health and barriers to mental health help-seeking in individuals from a refugee background.

The researchers analysis, which complies with PRISMA reporting guidelines, identified 62 relevant studies.

Methods

Data extraction and thematic analytic techniques were used to synthesise findings from quantitative (n = 26) and qualitative (n = 40) studies.

Results

They found that the salient barriers to help-seeking were:

  • Cultural barriers, including mental health stigma and knowledge of dominant models of mental health;
  • Structural barriers, including financial strain, language proficiency, unstable accommodation, and a lack of understanding of how to access services, and
  • Barriers specific to the refugee experience, including immigration status, a lack of trust in authority figures and concerns about confidentiality.

Conclusions

The researchers discuss and contextualise these key themes and consider how these findings can inform the development of policies and programmes to increase treatment uptake and ultimately reduce the mental health burden amongst refugees and asylum-seekers.

Reference

Byrow, Y., Pajak, R., Specker, P. & Nickerson, A. (2020) Perceptions of Mental Health and Perceived Barriers to Mental Health Help-Seeking Amongst Refugees: A Systematic Review. Clinical Psychology Review. 75:101812. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2019.101812. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Stacey Dooley: On the Psych Ward (2020)

Introduction

Every year thousands of young people are brought to mental health units across the UK to seek treatments.

Latest estimates put the number of people who suffer from a mental condition at 1 in 3 and most first experience mental health problems when they are young.

Refer to Stacey Dooley: Back on the Psych Ward (2021).

Outline

Stacey is going to work in Springfield Hospital, one of the oldest mental health units in the UK, to see what life is really like on the front line of mental health services. More than just observing, she will be working directly with staff, dealing with patients, and taking part in making incredibly tough decisions on what is best for patients.

Stacey meets Rachelle who has been diagnosed with EUPD (Emotionally Unstable Personality Disorder). Still in her 20s, she’s had a troubled life already – full of suicide attempts and self-harm. She opens up to Stacey about her struggles with her illness, and her hope that she will soon get the talking therapy that she believes could be the solution to her problems. The doctors here agree that this is not the best place for Rachelle to be, and they are hoping she will get a place at a specialist unit in Cambridge where she can make real progress in coping with her condition.

Stacey also spends time in a special acute assessment unit where patients can self-refer. She meets 19-year-old Kyle, who has come to Springfield in the midst of a severe depression and incident of self-harm. As Stacey takes part in a discussion with staff about whether to admit him to the hospital or support him in the community, Stacey experiences for herself just how difficult the decisions and the judgement calls are that the team have to make.

Police have brought Laura to the 136 unit, so called because it is the local designated place of safety as defined under section 136 of the Mental Health Act. She has been sectioned after being found on a motorway bridge, threatening to jump. She opens up to Stacey as they talk, trying to explain her thinking and her ongoing struggles with depression and her eating disorder – all stemming from traumas earlier in her short life.

Production & Filming Details

Losing It – Our Mental Health Emergency (2020): S01E04 – Street Triage

Introduction

As attitudes to mental health change during a surge in the number of people asking for help or harming themselves, this series joins the frontline care services in Nottinghamshire.

Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust opens its doors to TV cameras to reveal what it means to be in crisis.

Going to the heart of front line services as staff struggle to tackle an unprecedented rise in demand.

Outline

A look at the work of Street Triage, a blue-light rapid response team in Nottinghamshire, where the number of attempted suicides is staggering and ward beds are in short supply.

Losing It: Our Mental Health Emergency Series

Production & Filming Details

  • Release Date: 2020.
  • Original Network: Channel 4.

Losing It – Our Mental Health Emergency (2020): S01E03 – Josh, Christopher & Zoe

Introduction

As attitudes to mental health change during a surge in the number of people asking for help or harming themselves, this series joins the frontline care services in Nottinghamshire.

Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust opens its doors to TV cameras to reveal what it means to be in crisis.

Going to the heart of front line services as staff struggle to tackle an unprecedented rise in demand.

Outline

Josh is brought to A&E after trying to kill himself.

Is it safe to send the 15-year-old home?

After 11 years and multiple issues, Christopher faces being discharged from the service.

Losing It: Our Mental Health Emergency Series

Production & Filming Details

  • Release Date: 2020.
  • Original Network: Channel 4.

Losing It – Our Mental Health Emergency (2020): S01E02 – Three Teenage Girls

Introduction

As attitudes to mental health change during a surge in the number of people asking for help or harming themselves, this series joins the frontline care services in Nottinghamshire.

Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust opens its doors to TV cameras to reveal what it means to be in crisis.

Going to the heart of front line services as staff struggle to tackle an unprecedented rise in demand.

Outline

A young teen comes to A&E having self-harmed.

A 16-year-old is on the psychiatric ward.

And a 14-year-old’s eating disorder risks permanent harm to her body.

Losing It: Our Mental Health Emergency Series

Production & Filming Details

  • Release Date: 2020.
  • Original Network: Channel 4.